Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Associated with ice, found mainly in offshore waters, at or beyond the edge of the continental shelf (Ref. 1371). Cryopelagic or epontic; feeds on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 58426).
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=1371&speccode=25 External link.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Arctic and North Atlantic: widely distributed in western part of Arctic basin, also northwest and northeast coasts of Greenland.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Arctic and Northeast Atlantic: widely distributed in western part of Arctic basin, also northwest and northeast coasts of Greenland.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=1371&speccode=25 External link.
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Arctic and North Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Analspines: 0
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=1371&speccode=25 External link.
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Size

Maximum size: 325 mm TL
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Max. size

32.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371))
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=1371&speccode=25 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

Chin barbels rudimentary or absent.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=1371&speccode=25 External link.
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Type Information

Paratype for Phocaegadus megalops Jensen
Catalog Number: USNM 225112
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1932
Locality: Between Maria Island and Ella Island, Greenland, Arctic
Depth (m): 250 to 250
Vessel: Godthaab
  • Paratype: Jensen, A. S. 1948. Spolia Zoologica Musei Hauniensis. 9.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Associated with ice, found mainly in offshore waters, at or beyond the edge of the continental shelf.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

bathypelagic; non-migratory; marine; depth range 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 1371)
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=1371&speccode=25 External link.
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Depth range based on 32 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 16 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 6.5 - 2220
  Temperature range (°C): -1.692 - 1.824
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.155 - 14.718
  Salinity (PPS): 30.847 - 34.953
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.033 - 8.634
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.857 - 1.217
  Silicate (umol/l): 5.775 - 26.534

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 6.5 - 2220

Temperature range (°C): -1.692 - 1.824

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.155 - 14.718

Salinity (PPS): 30.847 - 34.953

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.033 - 8.634

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.857 - 1.217

Silicate (umol/l): 5.775 - 26.534
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 1000m.
Recorded at 1000 meters.

Habitat: bathypelagic.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Associated with ice, found mainly in offshore waters, at or beyond the edge of the continental shelf (Ref. 1371). Cryopelagic or epontic; feeds on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 58426).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Arctogadus glacialis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCGCTGATTTTTCTCGACCAATCACAAAGACATTGGCACCCTTTATCTCGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGCATAGTCGGAACAGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAGCTAAGTCAACCTGGTGCACTCCTTGGTGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATGTGATCGTTACAGCGCACGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCACTAATAATTGGAGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTCATTCCTCTAATG---ATTGGTGCTCCAGATATGGCTTTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTTCCTCCATCTTTCCTGCTCCTTTTAGCATCTTCTGGTGTAGAAGCTGGGGCTGGAACAGGCTGAACTGTCTACCCACCTTTAGCCGGAAACCTCGCTCATGCTGGGGCATCTGTTGATCTA---ACTATTTTTTCTCTTCATCTAGCAGGGATTTCATCAATTCTTGGGGCAATTAATTTTATTACCACAATTATTAATATGAAACCTCCAGCAATTTCACAGTACCAAACACCACTCTTTGTTTGAGCAGTACTAATTACAGCTGTACTTCTACTATTATCTCTCCCAGTCTTAGCAGCT---GGTATCACAATACTTCTAACTGACCGTAATCTTAACACTTCTTTCTTTGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGTGACCCCATTTTATACCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCTGAAGTTTATATTCTTATTTTACCTGGCTTCGGGATAATTTCCCACATTGTAGCATACTACTCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGGTACATAGGTATAGTCTGAGCTATGATGGCTATTGGCCTCCTTGGCTTTATTGTATGAGCCCATCACATGTTTACAGTTGGGATGGACGTAGACACACGTGCTTACTTTACATCTGCAACTATAATTATCGCTATTCCAACAGGTGTAAAAGTTTTTAGCTGATTA---GCAACT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Arctogadus glacialis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order
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Wikipedia

Arctogadus glacialis

"Arctic cod" redirects here. For the related species which shares its common names, see Boreogadus saida.

Arctogadus glacialis, known also with ambiguous common names Arctic cod[1][2] and polar cod,[1][3] is an Arctic species of fish in the cod family Gadidae, related to the true cod (genus Gadus). Arctogadus glacialis is found in icy water and often not seen in warm water. They grow to 30 cm long,and are favorite food of narwhals and other arctic whales.

Common names and taxonomy[edit]

The common "Arctic cod" and "polar cod" can refer to either Arctogadus glacialis or Boreogadus saida, and "Arctic cod" may also refer to Eleginus nawaga.[4]

Another Arctic gadid, the East Siberian cod (Arctogadus borisovi), was until recently considered the closest relative of A. glacialis. It has, however, been found not to be distinct from A. glacialis, and should be included in this species. According to this result, Arctogadus is a monotypic genus. However, Arctogadus is a close relative of Boreogadus, and should perhaps be included in that genus.[5]

Appearance[edit]

Arctic cod is silvery in appearance and can grow up to 32.5 cm (12.8 in) in total length. It lacks the chin barbels of other cod species (or this barbel is small).

Distribution[edit]

The Arctic cod is widely distributed in the western part of the Arctic basin and the northwest and northeast coasts of Greenland. Its range is between 85° and 72°N latitude. Arctic cod can be found at depths of up to 1000 m, and frequently under ice.

Fish earlier attributed to the East Siberian cod are found off the western half of the Canadian coast and the coasts of Siberia and also off northern and southern coasts of Greenland. The fish lives close to the sea floor at depths of 15 to 40 m, but it sometimes enters estuaries, and may also be found under pack ice.

The species is of minor commercial value.

Diet[edit]

A. glacialis in an ice-free area off northeastern Greenland were found to feed almost exclusively on pelagic prey (primarily copepods, amphipods, and mysids).[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Arctogadus glacialis" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  2. ^ Gadiform fishes of the World (Order Gadiformes) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 10. 1990.
  3. ^ Polar Cod University of Guelph.
  4. ^ Froese, R. and D. Pauly., eds. (2013). "FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (10/2013)". Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  5. ^ Jordan, AD; Møller, PR; Nielsen, JG (2003). "Revision of the Arctic cod genus Arctogadus". Journal of Fish Biology 62: 1339–1352. doi:10.1007/s00300-001-0348-5. CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.1.3927. 
  6. ^ Süfke, Lis; Piepenburg, Dieter; von Dorrien, Christian F. (1998). "Body size, sex ratio and diet composition of Arctogadus glacialis (Peters, 1874) (Pisces: Gadidae) in the Northeast Water Polynya (Greenland)". Polar Biology 20: 357–363. doi:10.1007/s003000050314. 
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