Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: tonguefish (English), lengua (Espanol), lengüeta (Espanol)
 
Symphurus varius Garman, 1899


Mottled tonguefish,     Freckled tonguefish



Body highly compressed, elongate, oval, tapers to pointed tail; small close-set eyes on left side, pupils without covers; snout rounded; mouth small, curved, strongly so on blind side; margin of preoperculum concealed by skin and scales; dorsal origin ~ above upper eye; dorsal rays 90-97; anal rays 77-81;  dorsal and anal fins confluent with the pointed tail fin; only left pelvic fin present, 4 rays, on body midline, joined to anal fin by delicate membrane; pectoral fins absent, represented by a fine membrane;  tail with 12 rays; no lateral line; scales rough, on both sides of body; scales in longitudinal series 120-124.

Top side yellowish to pale brown; series of dark blotches scattered over body; front half of body with dark dot at base of each dorsal and anal fin ray; rear 2/3 of dorsal and all anal with dark blotches on fin bases; tail base dark, outer part clear; blind side with scattered dots, most concentrated along dorsal and anal bases; usually no dark blotch behind opercle.


Size: 12 cm.

Habitat: rubble and shell bottoms.

Depth: 20-280 m.

Costa Rica to Panama; Cocos, Malpelo and the Galapagos.   
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

Probably found on rocky substrate (Ref. 9294).
  • Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider 1995 Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9294&speccode=13632 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the eastern tropical Pacific region and is found from Costa Rica to western Panama, and in Cocos, Malpelo, and the Galapagos islands.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern Pacific.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern Pacific: Cocos and the Galapagos islands.
  • Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider 1995 Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9294&speccode=13632 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth

Depth Range (m): 20 (S) - 280 (S)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 90 - 97; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 77 - 81; Vertebrae: 50 - 52
  • Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider 1995 Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9294&speccode=13632 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Length max (cm): 12.0 (S)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 108 mm SL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

10.8 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9294))
  • Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider 1995 Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9294&speccode=13632 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Syntype for Symphurus varius
Catalog Number: USNM 153592
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Off Panama, Panama, Pacific
Depth (m): 205 to 205
Vessel: Albatross
  • Syntype:
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species lives on rubble and shell substrata on the inner to outer continental shelf, probably primarily an insular species. It is found from 20-280m. It feeds on mobile invertebrates, and it has pelagic eggs and larvae.

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 70 - 278m.
From 70 to 278 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Probabaly found on rocky substrate (Ref. 9294).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 70 - 278 m (Ref. 9294), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 9294)
  • Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider 1995 Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9294&speccode=13632 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 7 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 89.5 - 274.5
  Temperature range (°C): 12.959 - 14.936
  Nitrate (umol/L): 22.401 - 29.870
  Salinity (PPS): 34.897 - 34.980
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.787 - 2.139
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.809 - 2.266
  Silicate (umol/l): 18.397 - 25.652

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 89.5 - 274.5

Temperature range (°C): 12.959 - 14.936

Nitrate (umol/L): 22.401 - 29.870

Salinity (PPS): 34.897 - 34.980

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.787 - 2.139

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.809 - 2.266

Silicate (umol/l): 18.397 - 25.652
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T., Tyler, J. & Robertson, R.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Although this species is seldom collected, its depth distribution and geographic distribution indicate that it has no major threats. Most of its range is included in Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This is not a common species in this range. There is no population information for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Least Concern (LC)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species specific conservation measures. However, most of this species' distribution is included in continental and island Marine Protected Areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!