Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: tonguefish (English), lengua (Espanol), lengüeta (Espanol)
 
Symphurus atramentatus Jordan & Bollman, 1890


Ink-spot tonguefish,     Half-spot tonguefish,     Spot-fin tonguefish



Body highly compressed,  elongate, oval, tapers to pointed tail; small close-set eyes on left side, with well developed cover over pupils; snout rounded; mouth small, curved, strongly so on blind side; margin of preoperculum concealed by skin and scales; dorsal origin ~ above upper eye; dorsal rays 88-98; anal rays 75-82;  dorsal and anal fins confluent with the pointed tail fin; only left pelvic fin present, 4 rays, on body midline, joined to anal fin by delicate membrane; pectoral fins absent, represented by a fine membrane;  tail with 12 rays; no lateral line; scales rough, on both sides of body; scales in longitudinal series 102-109.


Tan to dark brown, with 7-10 cross bars, sometimes complete or with the two halves of the first bar offset; dorsal and anal fins with 2-8 oval black blotches, those at rear of fins particularly intense; lining of gut cavity unpigmented; no dark blotch on operculum.


Size: grows to at least 14.4 cm.

Inhabits flat sand bottoms.

Depth: 1-120 m.

Baja and the Gulf of California to Peru; the Revillagigedos, Cocos and the Galapagos.   
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

Found over a variety of substrates (Ref. 9294). Small specimens may be taken from tide pools and other shallow habitats (Ref. 9294). Feeds mainly on small benthic invertebrates (Ref. 28023).
  • Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider 1995 Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9294&speccode=13632 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This eastern tropical Pacific species is found from southern Baja California and the Gulf of California to northern Peru, and the Galapagos islands (Munroe et al. 1995).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California and Bahía Magdalena, Mexico to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9294).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern Pacific.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 120 (S)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 89 - 98; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 75 - 82; Vertebrae: 49 - 53
  • Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider 1995 Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9294&speccode=13632 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Length max (cm): 14.4 (S)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 144 mm SL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

14.4 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9294))
  • Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider 1995 Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9294&speccode=13632 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Unconfirmed paratype for Symphurus atramentatus Jordan & Bollman
Catalog Number: USNM 41471
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission (USFC)
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: Gulf of Panama, Panama, Pacific
Depth (m): 60 to 60
Vessel: Albatross
  • Unconfirmed paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Bollman, C. H. 1890 (1889). Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 12 (770): 177.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Unconfirmed paratype for Symphurus atramentatus Jordan & Bollman
Catalog Number: USNM 41368
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission (USFC)
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: Gulf of Panama, Panama, Pacific
Depth (m): 60 to 60
Vessel: Albatross
  • Unconfirmed paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Bollman, C. H. 1890 (1889). Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 12 (770): 177.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Unconfirmed paratype for Symphurus atramentatus Jordan & Bollman
Catalog Number: USNM 41367
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission (USFC)
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: Gulf of Panama, Panama, Pacific
Depth (m): 60 to 60
Vessel: Albatross
  • Unconfirmed paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Bollman, C. H. 1890 (1889). Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 12 (770): 177.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Holotype for Symphurus atramentatus Jordan & Bollman
Catalog Number: USNM 41157
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: Ecuador To Panama, Ecuador, Pacific
Depth (m): 1355 to 1355
Vessel: Albatross
  • Holotype: Jordan, D. S. & Bollman, C. H. 1890 (1889). Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 12 (770): 177.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found over a variety of soft-bottom substrates, occasionally near reefs. Small specimens may be taken from tide pools and other shallow habitats. It feeds mainly on small benthic invertebrates, has pelagic eggs and larvae, and has been found from 1-120m of depth.

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 37955), usually 1 - 80 m (Ref. 9294)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 41 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 5 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3 - 1355
  Temperature range (°C): 3.394 - 22.443
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.645 - 41.751
  Salinity (PPS): 34.606 - 35.261
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.771 - 4.879
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.897 - 3.114
  Silicate (umol/l): 7.763 - 120.725

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3 - 1355

Temperature range (°C): 3.394 - 22.443

Nitrate (umol/L): 3.645 - 41.751

Salinity (PPS): 34.606 - 35.261

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.771 - 4.879

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.897 - 3.114

Silicate (umol/l): 7.763 - 120.725
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 1 - 120m.
From 1 to 120 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Demersal over a variety of substrates. Small specimens may be taken from tide pools and other shallow habitats (Ref. 9294). Also caught as a by-catch of trawl fishing (Ref. 9294).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T., Tyler, J. & Robertson, R.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is common, has a broad distribution, has no major threats, and is found within several Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This species is common within its range. There is no population information for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Least Concern (LC)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the eastern tropical Pacific region.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider 1995 Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9294&speccode=13632 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!