Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: flounder (English), lenguado (Espanol)
 
Monolene maculipinna Norman, 1933


Pacific deepwater flounder


Body elongate (depth < 33% of SL), tapering to tail; snout very short (< eye); eyes on left side of head, close together, with a spineless crest between them; lower eye originates distinctly before top eye; mouth moderately longt, ends under front edge of pupil;  teeth ~ equally developed on jaws on both eye- and blind-sides; 98-102 dorsal rays; 78-85 anal rays; pectoral notched at end, 9-12 rays, no pectoral on blind side in adults; base of eye-side pelvic slightly longer than base of blind-side fin, with origin behind lower eye; lateral line arched over pectoral fin; 104-112 lateral line scales.


Dark grey body and fins; pectoral blackish, with 2 rows of whitish spots.



Size: 18 cm.

Habitat: shell and mud bottoms.

Depth: 95-385 m.

Nicaragua to Peru; the Galapagos   
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Biology

Found on muddy, sandy, or rubble bottoms (Ref. 9281). Marketed fresh and also utilized as fishmeal (Ref. 9281).
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Bothidae. Lenguados. p. 931-936. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9281)
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Distribution

Range Description

This eastern tropiocal Pacific species is found from Nicaragua to northern Peru and in the Galapagos Islands.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, Panamic province endemic, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Central Pacific: Costa Rica to Peru. Also reported in Nicaragua (Ref. 13613).
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Bothidae. Lenguados. p. 931-936. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9281)
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Eastern central Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 95 (S) - 385 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 18.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 180 mm TL
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Max. size

18.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9281))
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Bothidae. Lenguados. p. 931-936. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9281)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species lives on deep sandy, muddy, and shell substrata; it feeds on mobile invertebrates and fishes, and has pelagic eggs and larvae (Hensley 1995). It has been recorded from a depth range of 95-385 m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 205 - 384 m (Ref. 9281)
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Bothidae. Lenguados. p. 931-936. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9281)
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Depth range based on 22 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 5 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 280
  Temperature range (°C): 12.983 - 27.526
  Nitrate (umol/L): 9.759 - 31.128
  Salinity (PPS): 33.522 - 35.043
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.373 - 4.011
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.673 - 2.244
  Silicate (umol/l): 6.495 - 27.850

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 280

Temperature range (°C): 12.983 - 27.526

Nitrate (umol/L): 9.759 - 31.128

Salinity (PPS): 33.522 - 35.043

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.373 - 4.011

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.673 - 2.244

Silicate (umol/l): 6.495 - 27.850
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 205 - 384m.
From 205 to 384 meters.

Habitat: bathydemersal. Demersal. Inhabits muddy or sandy bottoms. May also be found on bottoms with rubble. It is of potencial economic importance. Marketed fresh. May also be utilized as fishmeal.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Monolene maculipinna

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T. & Tyler, J.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a widespread distribution in the eastern tropical Pacific and is found on the outer continental shelf to depths of 385 m. It has no major threats and may be found in some Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. This species is sold fresh in local markets and is processed as fish meal.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution may fall into some Marine Protected Areas in the eastern tropical Pacific region. More information about the population structure for this species is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Bothidae. Lenguados. p. 931-936. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9281)
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