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Apogon pleuron ZBK new species

Holotype : USMN 357488 ; 70.5 mm SL; Philippines , Visayan Sea, Tanguinqui I. , 11°28'42"N123° 45'45"E ; 69 m, x-ray.

Paratypes : USNM 268253 ; 57 mm SL; Samar Sea, Carigara Bay , 11°30'N124° 40'12"E ; 1980 ; 50-70 m . , USNM 357487 ; 6, 59-64 mm SL; Visayan Sea, Sicogon I. , 11°27'45"N123°23'45"E ; 4 Jun 1978 ; 47 m . USNM 332331 ; 104 mm SL; Visayan Sea, Southwest of Caduruan Point , 11°37'07"N123°54'45"E ; SP-78 ; 6 Jun 1978 ; 91 m . USNM 349175 ; 2, 65-70 mm SL; Visayan Sea, Tanguinqui I. , 11°39'22"N123°38'16"E ; 20 May 1978 ; 62 m . ASIZP 60404 ; 52 mm SL; Taiwan , between Ilan, TaHsi and TaiPei, FuLung . CAS 85962 ; 2, 84-85 mm SL; Thailand12°30'N100°00'E ; GVF 1565 ; 11- 23 Dec 1957 . AMS I.16749011 ; 3, 43-48 mm SL; New Guinea , Madang Harbor , 5°05'S145°10'E ; 4 Oct 1969 ; 3-10 m . ROM 73645 81.2 mm SL; Viet Nam , Khanh Hoa , Nha Trang: RW02-12 ; 1 May 2002 .

Other material: Philippines : LUZON I. : CAS 169824 ; (2, 47-52); Cavite ; 1901 . CAS 127403 ; (3, 43-58); La Union Province , San Juan ; 23 Dec 1922 . CAS 169822 ; (30, 40-70); Manila Bay ; 22 Dec 1933 . USNM 171465 ; (4, 27-48); Albatross ; 22 June 1908 . USNM 361119 ; (7, 74-87); Manila fish market ; 13 May 1969 . USNM 262206 ; (4, 57-65); Sorsogon Bay . USNM 171459 ; (11, 46-65); Bacon ; 15 Jun 1908 . USNM 175657 ; (1, 56) . USNM 361117 ; (1, 63); Manila market; A19760 ; 20 Apr 1909 . USNM 361120 ; (1, 65); Manila Harbor; A23683 ; 4 Jan 1908 . USNM 171475 ; (1, 56); Cavite market; A5969 ; 1 Dec 1908 . USNM 361109 ; (13, 43-53); Manila HarborAlbatross ; 31 Dec 1907 to 1 Jan 1908 . USNM 361116 ; (7, 74-89); Manila Fish Market ; 13 May 1969 . USNM 361118 ; (4, 40-45); Limbones Cove; D5360 ; 8 Feb 1909 . USNM 361115 ; (1, 69); Cavite ; Lung . JOLO IS. : CAS 84938 ; (2, 45-52); Jolo . USNM 126374 ; (3, 54-56); Jolo Is.; A3567- 3569 ; 1903 . NEGROS I.: CAS 169804 ; (1, 67); Negros Oriental , Dumaguete; AWH 9-VI- 31 ; A.W. Herre ; 9 Jun 1931 . CAS 169822 ; (30, 41-70); AWH V-31-33 ; A.W. Herre ; May 1931 . VISAYAN SEA: USNM 332330 ; (1, 73); Tanguinqui I. , 11°28'39"N123°50'05"E ; 75 m . SAMAR SEA: USNM 262205 ; (1, 51); Carigara Bay , 11°27' N124°48'12"E ; 60-64 m . New Guinea : AMS I. 16749011 ; (3, 43-48); Madang, Bostrem Bay5°05'S145°48'E ; 4 Oct 1969 ; 3-10 m . China : Hong Kong : CAS 160943 ; (23, 46-64); off Yeung Chow I. ; GVF 1692 ; 6 Jan 1958 . CAS 160990 ; (6, 56-79); GVF 1698 ; 7 Jan 1958 . CAS 160952 ; (188, 32-83); North of Yeung Chow I.GVF 1693 ; 6 Jan 1958 . CAS 161144 ; (1, 64); GVF 1700 ; 6 Jan 1958 . CAS 85966 ; (3, 71-74); Tolo channel ; GVF 1792 ; 28 Aug 1958 ; 16-25 m . CAS 30552 ; (74, 43-80); Yuang Chau I. ; GVF 1696 ; 6 Jan 1958 . Thailand : CAS 17675 ; (58, 38-66); Gulf of Thailand, Ko-Sichang , 13°08'N100°51'E ; 5 Nov 1970 ; 18-24 m . CAS 86002 ; GVF 2203 ; (1, 45); 10°26'34"N99°15'24"E ; 27 May 1960 ; 3 m . CAS 86006 ; (1, 73); 12°19'15"N100°43'40"E ; GVF 2306 ; 13 Dec 1960 ; 33 m . CAS 86003 ; GVF 2497 ; (1, 85); 11°58'N99°56'30"E ; 11- 15 Mar 1961 ; 18 m . CAS 27438 ; (2, 38-47); Ko-Sichang ; 24 Apr 1969 ; 27-55 m . CAS 85999 ; (1, 80); Rayong ; GVF 1552 ; 7- 9 Dec 1957 . CAS 214236 ; GVF 1485 ; (2, 60-66); S of Trat Bay ; 29 Oct 1957 ; 10 m . Indonesia:CAS 214235 ; (1, 46); McCluer Gulf , 1°03'06"S130°34'E ; 16 Dec 1972 ; 11-19 m . Singapore : CAS 130417 ; (2, 32-74); Straits Settlement ; 14 Mar 1934 . Malaysia : CAS 127850 ; (2, 31-39); Borneo, Sandakan ; 2 Jul 1929 . CAS 130421 ; Off Malacca; AWH 21- III-34 ; A.W. Herre ; 21 Mar 1934 . USNM 171471 ; Sandakan Bay; A23125-23128, 23370 ; 2 May 1908 . USNM 171458 ; (27, 44-66); Sandakan Bay ; 2 Mar 1908 . India : USNM 213300 ; (3, 59- -68); Madras State , Mandapam Camp, fish market , 9°20'N79°10'E ; FHB 66-37 ; 29 Sep 1966 .

Diagnosis. A species of Apogon (Ostorhinchus) with two brownish stripes on head and body in life, mid-lateral stripe extending to tip of caudal fin, with variable vertical bars from ventral edge beginning just past the pectoral fin, dorsal stripe from snout over eye ending about middle of second dorsal fin but not past second dorsal-fin base; roof of mouth and upper gill arches dark; 15, rarely 16 pectoral-fin rays well developed gill rakers 17-20 rarely 16 or 21; total gill rakers and rudiments 21-23, rarely 19-20; VII first-dorsal spines.

Description. See Figure 1 for general body shape and Table 1 for proportional percentages. Paratypic and other material counts noted when different than holotype.

Dorsal fin VII -I,9 with third spine much thicker than second or fourth, last soft ray shorter than preceding ray; anal fin II,8 with last soft ray shorter than preceding ray; pectoral fin 15-15 in holotype, usually 15-15, rarely 16 (Table 2); pelvic fin I,5; principal caudal rays 9 + 8, caudal fin forked; scale counts missing for holotype, pored lateral-line scales, 24-25, extending from posttemporal onto base of caudal fin; transverse scale rows above lateral line 2; transverse scale rows below lateral line 6; median predorsal scales 5; circumpeduncular scale rows 12 (5+2+5).

Villiform teeth in several rows on the premaxilla; several rows of villiform teeth becoming a single row on side of dentary; 1-2 rows on the palatine; one row on vomer; none on ectopterygoid, entopterygoid or basihyal. Rudiments and gill rakers on first arch (Table 3): holotype with 2 rudiments and 4 gill rakers on upper arch, 1 rudiment and 14 gill rakers on lower arch, total gill rakers and rudiments 21 well developed gill rakers 18; paratypes and other material with 3-5 rudiments and 3-4 gill rakers on upper arch; 0-2 rudiment and 13-17 gill rakers on lower arch, 21-23 total rudiments and gill rakers (rarely 19-20 or 26), well develop gill rakers 17-20 (rarely 16 or 22). Second arch of holotype with 2 rudiment-like rakers on upper arch and 13 short rakers grading to rudiments on lower arch; paratypes and other material with 2 +13-15.

Vertebrae 10 + 14; 5 free hypurals, 1 pair of slender uroneurals, 3 epurals, a free parhypural; 3 supraneurals; 2 supernumerary spines on first dorsal pterygiophore; basisphenoid present; supramaxilla absent; posttemporal serrate on posterior margin, 2 serrations for holotype, 2-5 for paratypes and other material; preopercle ridge smooth, edges serrate on posterior and ventral margins; infraorbital edge smooth.

Scales ctenoid for holotype where present; ctenoid on opercle, subopercle, cheek, breast, nape, pelvic in paratypes and other material; ctenoid pored lateral-line scales from posttemporal to base of hypural; central pore canal on lateral-line scale with 2-3 pores on dorsal side, below with 1 pore, rarely with multiple pores.

Ten pores around mouth: 3 bilateral pores above premaxilla, 1 below anterior nasal area along ventral edge of crease, 2 on ventral edge of lachrymal separated by a septum; 2 bilateral pores on dentary near symphysis, 1 mid-anterior, 1 ventral.

Color in alcohol. Holotype as in Figure 1. Peritoneum silvery with tiny melanophores, Stomach and intestine blackish. Roof of mouth and portion of upper arches dark.

Paratypes and other material with dark dorsal stripe from snout over eye ending about middle of second dorsal fin but not past second dorsal-fin base, midline stripe from snout through eye extending to the edge of the caudal fin, beginning behind pectoral-fin base about 5-9 vertical bars variably extending onto abdominal region from ventral edge of mid-lateral stripe; lower lips with some melanophores; dark stripe on first 1-3 pelvic rays to pale with first and second rays with melanophores; anal fin with distal tips in melanophores, stripe near base of fin extending onto last anal ray tips; stripe in second dorsal extending onto 9th ray; base of anal rays, and base of 2nd dorsal fin darker posteriorly; roof of mouth and portion of upper arches dark; Peritoneum silvery with tiny melanophores, Stomach and intestine blackish.

Life colors. See Figure 2 for color pattern shortly after collection. Color pattern under water unknown. Fowler and Bean (1930: 65) provided color notes, as Amia quadrifasciatus , for specimens now in USNM 361109. Shao and Chen’s (1986: fig. 44) color photograph identified as Apogon quadrifasciatus ZBK is this species.

FIGURE 1. Holotype of Apogon pleuron ZBK , USMN 357488; 70.5 mm SL; Philippines, Visayan Sea, Tanguinqui Island. Photograph modified from original taken by S. Raredon, USMN.

Distribution. Known from the continental margin of eastern India to Taiwan and New Guinea. See Figure 3 for location of collection sites.

Etymology. The Greek noun pleuron meaning rib, in apposition, and referring to the dark rib-like markings extending below the mid-line stripe on the body.

Habitat: Found over open bottom at depths of 3-91 meters.

FIGURE 2. Paratype of Apogon pleuron ZBK , ROM 76345, Vietnam, 81.2 mm SL. Photograph modified from original taken by R. Winterbottom, ROM.

Remarks. This species has often been misidentified as Apogon fasciatus . Specimens have been collected at the same trawling stations with Apogon fasciatus (CAS 84758, 109712, 127401,160957, 213347, USNM 268252, 332329). One specimen in CAS 84758 without buccal eggs, but with the mouth expansion. This species can be found in fish markets as part of trawls catches and sold for food from India to the Philippines. Largest specimen, 104 mm SL.

FIGURE 3. Distribution of the collection locations for Apogon pleuron ZBK new species .

TABLE 1. Proportions as a percent of standard length for the Apogon fasciatus species group. The proportions for the holotype of Apogon pleuron ZBK is followed by proportions in parentheses of the paratypes.

VI-spined VII-spined
percent of standard length bryx ZBK kiensis ZBK pleuron ZBK n. sp. fasciatus septemstriatus quinquestriatus ZBK
greatest body depth 30 32-34 33.7 (32-38) 34-37 38-39 30-32
head length 37-38 37-41 40.0 (39-43) 35-42 40-42 39-40
eye diameter 11 11-12 11.5 (10-13) 11-13 11-12 10.4-10.8
snout length 7-9 8-9 8.9 (8-10) 8-9 9-10 9.0-9.6
bony interorbital width 7-9 7-8 7.7 (7-9) 7-8 8 6.9-7.4
upper jaw length 16-17 19-21 19.6 (18-19) 17-19 20-21 18-19
caudal-peduncle depth 13 12-14 13.0 (13-16) 13-17 17-18 14.0
caudal-peduncle length 23-24 24-27 25.2 (22-27) 24-24 20-23 21-22
1st dorsal-fin spine length 9-12 8-11 2.5 (1-3) 1-4 4-5 1.5
2nd dorsal-fin spine length 15-17 16-18 7.5 (7-9) 6-10 8-11 7.0-8.0
3rd dorsal-fin spine length 14-16 15-18 18.7 (16-19) 15-18 19-20 20.0
4th dorsal-fin spine length 12-13 14-16 17.0 (16-19) 14-17 18-20 17.0
2nd dorsal fin spine 11-12 11-12 - (12-17) 12-15 13-14 -
1st anal-fin spine length 2-3 2-3 3.1 (3-4) 2-3 2-3 2.0
2nd anal-fin spine length 10 10-11 13.6 (11-14) 11-13 12-13 11.0
pectoral-fin length 22-23 21-23 26.4 (22-26) 23-28 20-22 22-25
pelvic-fin length 19-21 20-22 25.0 (22-26) 21-23 22-25 -

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