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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: kawakawa (English), bacoreta (Espanol)
 
Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849)


Kawakawa


Elongate, fusiform; no fatty eyelid; jaw teeth slender, conical; top of tongue with 2 cartilaginous crests; 29-33 gill rakers; 1st  dorsal XII-XVI; 2 dorsal fins barely separated; front of 1st  dorsal is high; ~ 9 dorsal finlets and ~ 7 anal finlets; bone between base of pelvics short, forked; pectorals 25-29 rays; two small keels separated by one large one on tail base; corselet of large, thickened scales on front body, body scaleless behind corselet.


Bluey above, silvery below; a cluster of black spots on belly above pelvic fin; ~ 12 oblique dark lines on upper back behind corselet.

Size: 110 cm; at least 13.2 kg.

Habitat: surface pelagic, coastal.

Depth: 0-50 m.

Indo-Pacific; vagrants in the Revillagigedos and southern Baja.
   
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Biology

Occurs in open waters but always remains close to the shoreline. The young may enter bays and harbors. Forms multi-species schools by size with other scombrid species comprising from 100 to over 5,000 individuals. A highly opportunistic predator feeding indiscriminately on small fishes, especially on clupeoids and atherinids; also on squids, crustaceans and zooplankton (Ref. 9684). Generally marketed canned and frozen; also utilized dried, salted, smoked (Ref. 9684) and fresh (Ref. 9987).
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Distribution

Range Description

This is an Indo-West Pacific species. It is found in warm waters including oceanic islands and archipelagos. A few stray specimens have been collected in the eastern tropical Pacific (Collette and Nauen 1983).
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Island (s), Island (s) only

Residency: Vagrant

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos)
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Indo-West Pacific: in warm waters including oceanic islands and archipelagos. A few stray specimens have been collected in the Eastern Central Pacific. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
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Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Panama, north to Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 50 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 1114; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 13 - 14; Vertebrae: 39
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Size

Length max (cm): 110.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 1000 mm FL
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Max. size

100.0 cm FL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 168)); max. published weight: 14.0 kg (Ref. 30874)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs in open waters with temperatures ranging from 18° to 29°C but always remains close to the shoreline. The young may enter bays and harbors. Form multispecies schools by size with other scombrid species comprising from 100 to over 5,000 individuals. A highly opportunistic predator feeding indiscriminately on small fishes, especially on clupeiods and atherinids; also on squids,crustaceans and zooplankton (Ref. 9684). Generally marketed canned and frozen; also utilized dried, salted, smoked (Ref. 9684) and fresh (Ref. 9987).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Swim bladder absent. No trace of vertebral protuberances. Anterior spines of first dorsal fin much higher than those mid-way. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Body naked except for corselet and lateral line. Posterior portion of the back with a pattern of broken oblique stripes.
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This pelagic and oceanodromous species occurs in open waters, but it always remains close to the shoreline. It is found to 50 m depth. The young may enter bays and harbours. It forms multi-species schools by size with other scombrid species, comprising from 100 to over 5,000 individuals. It is a highly opportunistic predator feeding indiscriminately on small fishes, especially on clupeoids and atherinids (e.g., 78% by weight, 71% frequency in eastern Australia, Griffiths et al. 2009). It also feeds on squids, crustaceans and zooplankton (Collette 2001).

Yesaki and Arce (1994) and Muthias (1985) report the apparent length at 50% maturity for this species off India to be 43 cm. A study conducted in Taiwan found the age at first maturity to be two years (Chiou et al. 2004). Longevity has been estimated at six years (Landau 1965).

This species spawns extensively, both geographically and temporally, throughout its range (Schaefer 2001). Although spawning distributions of all three Euthynnus species have been reported to be restricted primarily to peripheral areas and around islands (Yoshida 1979, Nishikawa et al. 1985), spawning in the eastern tropical Pacific has been shown to be widely distributed from coastal to oceanic waters (Schaefer 1987).

Maximum Size is 100 cm fork length (FL), about 13.6 kg. The all-tackle game fish record is of a 13.15 kg fish caught off Isla Clarion, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico, in the eastern Pacific outside the usual range of this Indo-West Pacific species (IGFA 2011).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 54439)
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Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2.44 - 270
  Temperature range (°C): 26.525 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 1.251
  Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 35.095
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.438 - 4.572
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.214
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 4.407

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2.44 - 270

Temperature range (°C): 26.525 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 1.251

Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 35.095

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.438 - 4.572

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.214

Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 4.407
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Offshore Only, Offshore

Water Column Position: Surface, Near Surface, Mid Water, Water column only

Habitat: Water column

FishBase Habitat: Pelagic
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Like other scombrids, E. affinis tend to form multispecies schools by size especially with small T. albacares, K. pelamis, Auxis sp. and M. cordyla comprising from 100 to over 5,000 individuals. But during certain periods of the year, there is a tendency for the fish to remain scattered (Ref. 168). Kawakawa is piscivorous. Most important prey items of the immature smaller E. affinis were the larval anchovy and lanternfish while the matured fish Decapterus spp and Scomber australicus (Ref. 53677).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish, Pelagic crustacea, zooplankton, bony fishes
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Diseases and Parasites

Spinitectus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Prosorhynchoides Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Lecithochirium Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Caligus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Anisakis Disease (juvenile). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Euthynnus affinis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 17 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTATCTAGTATTCGGTGCATGAGCTGGTATAGTTGGCACGGCCTTA---AGCTTGCTCATCCGGGCTGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGTGCCCTTCTTGGGGAC---GACCAGATCTACAATGTAATCGTTACGGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTCATCCCTCTTATG---ATTGGGGCTCCAGACATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTTCCCCCATCTTTCCTTCTACTCCTAGCTTCTTCAGGAGTTGAGGCTGGTGCCGGGACTGGTTGAACAGTTTACCCTCCTCTTGCCGGGAATCTGGCCCACGCCGGAGCATCCGTTGACTTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTCCATCTAGCGGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTTGGGGCAATTAATTTCATTACGACAATTATCAACATGAAGCCTGCCGCTATCTCTCAATATCAGACCCCTCTGTTCGTATGGGCTGTTCTAATTACAGCCGTTCTTCTTCTACTATCCCTCCCAGTCCTTGCCGCT---GGCATTACAATGCTCCTGACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACAACCTTCTTCGACCCTGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATCCTTTACCAGCACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Euthynnus affinis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 28
Specimens with Barcodes: 42
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Chang, S.-K., Fox, W., Juan Jorda, M., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R. & Uozumi, Y.

Reviewer/s
Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and abundant in the Indian and Western Pacific Ocean. It is caught in commercial fisheries, primarily as bycatch. It is marketed in a variety of products, and reported worldwide landings are increasing. Currently, there is no information on population trends. It is listed as Least Concern. More information is needed on this species population and the impact of fisheries, especially as it seems that many catches are not being reported.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
The reported world catch for this species between 1975 and 1981 fluctuated between 44,000 and 65,000 metric tonnes per year. The countries with the largest landings are currently the Philippines and Thailand (FAO 2009). In the Philippines and Indonesia, the catch includes many small individuals (N. Miyabe pers comm 2009).This species is considered abundant in many parts of its range.

Worldwide reported landings show a gradual increase from 20,400 tonnes in 1950 to 282,359 tonnes in 2006 (FAO 2009). There are only sub-regional stock assessments for this species, generally based on short time series. For example, in Sri Lanka this species was considered to not be fully exploited (Dayaratne and Silva 1991). Based on a length-structured VPA for 2003–2006 in Veravel, India, it seemed likely that maximum yield and yield/recruit could be obtained by increasing the amount of fishing by 80% (Ghosh et al. 2010).

There is no information on stock structure in the Indian Ocean. From 1958–2007, catches in the Indian Ocean have increased from 3,000 to 125,000 tonnes (IOTC 2007).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species. It is occasionally caught in multi-species fisheries, mainly by surface trolling; also with gill nets and purse seines. It is also caught as bycatch in industrial purse seines. It seems that there are many catches of this species that are not reported, for example it is caught in Madagascar and Zanzibar (Tanzania).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. This is listed as a highly migratory species in Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (FAO Fisheries Department 1994). More information is needed on this species population and the impact of fisheries, especially as it seems that many catches are not being reported
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

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