Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in clear streams and enters brackish waters (Ref. 4832). Adults inhabit standing and sluggish waters of lakes, floodplains, canals and ponds (Ref. 12693). Undertake localized lateral migrations from the Mekong River to floodplains during the flood season and back to the mainstream or other permanent water bodies during the dry season (Ref. 37770). Common in tanks throughout the greater parts of India. Feed on insects, fish (Ref. 12693), crustaceans and some young roots of aquatic plants (Ref. 6459). Active during twilight and night. Colonize and breed seasonally during rainy days and migrates back to permanent waters in dry season (Ref. 12693). Breeding takes place in stagnant or running waters in the rainy season. Eggs are laid in small clumps on submerged vegetation. A female measuring 21-25 cm usually lays 1,200-3,000 eggs. The fish is relished both in fresh and dried state. Soup made from it is reported to be given to people with measles (Ref. 7431). Of high economic importance as food fish in South and Southeast Asia to Borneo and Sumatra and taken by all types of small-scale fishing gears (Ref. 57235).
  • Roberts, T.R. 1992 Systematic revision of the old world freshwater fish family Notopteridae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):361-383. (Ref. 7431)
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Distribution

Range Description

The species is recorded from Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaysia and Indonesia.
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Asia: Indus, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Krishna, Cauvery, and other river basins in southern India; Irrawaddy, and Salween; Meklong, Chao Phraya, Mekong and virtually all coastal river basins of peninsular Thailand and Malaysia; Sumatra and Java. Has never been reported in Borneo and is not present in the Red River basin of Tonkin (North Viet Nam).
  • Roberts, T.R. 1992 Systematic revision of the old world freshwater fish family Notopteridae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):361-383. (Ref. 7431)
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Asia: Nepal, India, Bangladesh,Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaya, Pakistan and Thailand.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal soft rays (total): 7 - 9; Analsoft rays: 97 - 111
  • Kottelat, M. 1998 Fishes of the Nam Theun and Xe Bangfai basins, Laos, with diagnoses of twenty-two new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Coiidae and Odontobutidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 9(1):1-128. (Ref. 27732)
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Size

Maximum size: 600 mm SL
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Max. size

60.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050))
  • Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo 1993 Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguishable by its plain brown adult coloration and the convex or only slightly concave dorsal head profile; juveniles (
  • Kottelat, M. 1998 Fishes of the Nam Theun and Xe Bangfai basins, Laos, with diagnoses of twenty-two new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Coiidae and Odontobutidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 9(1):1-128. (Ref. 27732)
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Ecology

Habitat

Indus River Demersal Habitat

This taxon is one of the native demersal fish taxa that are found in the Indus River system. Major tributaries of the Indus rise in the Himalayan Mountains and the Hindu Kush; these influent rivers include the Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej. The Indus mainstem rises on the Tibetan Plateau and flows generally westward.

Generally the Indus sustains slower velocities with a wider channel as the river approaches its delta on the Arabian Sea. The Indus transports massive amounts of silt generated by human disturbances in its watershed as well as the torrential monsoonal rain events. Water quality issues in the Indus Basin have historically been dominated by sediment loading in a watershed which is subject to high natural erosivity, and early disturbance by sedentary agriculture on the floodplains and valleys. Beginning in the twentieth century, water pollution has been aggravated by massive water withdrawals for agriculture that have then concentrated pollutants.

The Green Revolution has exacerbated water pollution by considerable additions of nitrate to promote crop growth. Other aggravating factors have included increasing amounts of herbicides and pesticides, as pressures to increase crop production expand. Flow of the perennial Indus is dominated by: (a) meltwaters from the Tibetan icefield, the third largest ice sheet formation in the world; (b) snowfall and snowmelt from higher elevation of the watershed; and (c) episodic monsoonal rains that lead to periodic flooding in the basin.

Some of the arge native demersal fish associates in the Indus Basin are the 70 centimetre (cm) scaly osman (Diptychus maculatus), the 30 cm reba (Bangana ariza), the 30 cm Indus snowtrout (Ptychobarbus conirostris), the 30 cm Kunar snowtrout (Schizothorax labiatus), the 35 cm false osman (Schizopygopsis stoliczkai), the 47 cm Chirruh snowtrout (Schizothorax esocinus), and the 40 cm Sattar snowtrout (Schizopyge curvifrons).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species inhabits fresh and brackish waters, and appears to thrive well in lentic waters.

Owing to its carnivorous nature, this fish can only be cultivated in wild waters or in fattening ponds in which large fish are present. It breeds in stagnant or running water in the rainy season. A ripe female bears relatively fewer eggs; they are laid in small clumps on submerged vegetation. Fingerlings are available in upper reaches of Cauvery in July-August. This fish is relished both in fresh and dried state.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; pH range: 6.0 - 6.5; dH range: 3 - 8
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1.5
  Temperature range (°C): 28.738 - 28.738
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.360 - 0.360
  Salinity (PPS): 32.360 - 32.360
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.580 - 4.580
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.207 - 0.207
  Silicate (umol/l): 5.109 - 5.109

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 1.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Found in clear streams and enters brackish waters (Ref. 4832). Inhabits standing and sluggish waters of lakes, floodplains, canals and ponds (Ref. 12693). Undertakes localized lateral migrations from the Mekong River to floodplains during the flood season and back to the mainstream or other permanent water bodies during the dry season (Ref. 37770). Common in tanks throughout the greater parts of India. Feeds on insects, fish (Ref. 12693), crustaceans and some young roots of aquatic plants (Ref. 6459).
  • Roberts, T.R. 1993 Artisanal fisheries and fish ecology below the great waterfalls of the Mekong River in southern Laos. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 41:31-62. (Ref. 9497)
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Diseases and Parasites

Procamallanus Infection 5. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and A.B.A. Ahmed 2002 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of Bangladesh. FAO Fish. Tech. Paper (T369/1), 77 p. (Ref. 42533)
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Pleurogenoides Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and A.B.A. Ahmed 2002 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of Bangladesh. FAO Fish. Tech. Paper (T369/1), 77 p. (Ref. 42533)
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Fish louse Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and A.B.A. Ahmed 2002 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of Bangladesh. FAO Fish. Tech. Paper (T369/1), 77 p. (Ref. 42533)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Spawning occurs at night (Ref. 1672).
  • Rahman, A.K.A. 1989 Freshwater fishes of Bangladesh. Zoological Society of Bangladesh. Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka. 364 p. (Ref. 1479)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Notopterus notopterus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCGCTGACTATTTTCTACCAACCACAAAGACATCGGAACCCTATACCTTGTATTTGGGGCCTGAGCAGGCATAGTAGGTACAGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTAATCCGAGCAGAATTAAGCCAACCTGGCTCACTACTTGGCGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTTATCGTAACAGCACACGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATGGTAATGCCTATTATGATTGGAGGTTTTGGAAATTGATTAATCCCACTAATA---ATTGGAGCCCCTGATATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTACCCCCATCGTTCCTACTACTCCTAGCCTCTTCAGGAGTAGAGGCCGGTGCCGGAACAGGATGAACCGTATATCCGCCTCTAGCAGGAAACCTAGCACATGCAGGCGCCTCCGTTGATCTC---ACAATTTTTTCACTTCACCTAGCTGGTGTCTCATCAATTCTAGGAGCCATTAATTTTATTACAACAGTATTTAATATAAAACCGCCCGTAGTGTCACAATATCAAACACCACTGTTTATCTGAGCAGTAATAATTACTGCAGTTTTACTTCTTTTATCCCTTCCAGTCTTAGCCGCC---GGCATTACAATGCTTCTTACAGACCGCAACCTTAACACAACATTTTTCGACCCGGCAGGAGGGGGTGATCCAATCCTTTATCAGCACTTATTCTGATTCTTCGGTCACCCAGAAGTATATATTTTAATTCTACCAGGCTTCGGTATAATTTCACACATCGTTGCCTATTATTCTGGTAAAAAA---GAACCATTTGGCTATATAGGTATAGTTTGAGCTATGATGGCCATTGGACTATTAGGCTTCATTGTGTGAGCTCACCACATATTCACAGTAGGAATAGACGTTGACACCCGAGCTTACTTTACATCTGCAACAATAATCATCGCAATTCCGACCGGTGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGATTA---GCCACACTTTATGGCGGG---TCTATTAAATGAGAAGCACCATTCTTATGAGCCCTTGGGTTTATTTTCCTATTTACAGTAGGAGGTCTAACAGGAATCGTACTAGCCAACTCATCCTTAGATATTATTCTGCATGATACCTACTACGTTGTTGCCCACTTCCATTATGTA---CTATCTATAGGCGCCGTATTTGCAATTATAGGAGGATTTGTACACTGATTCCCACTATTCTCAGGCTATACACTTCACGGAACATGAACCAAAATTCACTTTATAGTAATATTCATTGGAGTAAACTTAACCTTCTTCCCTCAACACTTCCTTGGATTAGCTGGCATGCCACGT---CGATATTCTGACTACCCAGACGCCTACACG---CTATGAAATACAGTCTCCTCAGTTGGATCCCTAATCTCATTAGTCGCAGTAATTATATTCTTATTTATTCTTTGAGAAGCATTTGCAGCTAAACGAGAAGTT---TTATCCGTTGAAATAACCTCTACAAAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Notopterus notopterus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Ng, H.H.

Reviewer/s
Jha, B.R., Allen, D., Datta, N.C., Britz, R. & Dey, S.C.

Contributor/s
Molur, S.

Justification
Notopterus notopterus is most likely a species complex (R. Britz, pers. comm.), despite the very wide range as currently accepted. Until the taxonomic issue is resolved, the species is assessed as Least Concern. Further work is required to understand the species taxonomy when a reevaluation is also necessary to assess the status of the species.
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Population

Population
It is common throughout its range.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

The threats to this species are not known.

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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

More research into population trends in the wild is required to understand the status of this widespread species.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
  • Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran 1991 Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
  • Rainboth, W.J. 1996 Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)
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Wikipedia

Bronze featherback

For other species formerly included in Notopterus, see Chitala.

The bronze featherback (Notopterus notopterus; Bengali: ফলি, Thai: ปลาสลาด, ปลาฉลาด, ปลาตอง) is a fish in family Notopteridae found in South and Southeast Asia. Although primarily found in fresh water, it has been known to enter brackish water.[1] At present it is the only member of its genus, but as currently defined it is likely a species complex.[2]

Young specimens are a dark bronze-like color that becomes lighter with age. The species reaches a length of up to 60 cm (24 in).[1]

This fish appears in a stamp of the Kingdom of Laos.[3]

Uses[edit]

Dried and smoked Pla salat, a Khorat specialty

This fish is popular in Laos, Indonesia, and Thailand as food. It is preserved and prepared in different ways. Nam phrik pla salat pon (น้ำพริกปลาสลาดป่น) is a variety of nam phrik with minced roasted pla salat eaten along with raw vegetables. It is popular in Khorat.[4]

References[edit]

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