Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.
  • Sato, K., K. Nakaya and A.L. Stewart 1999 A new species of the deep-water catshark genus Apristurus from New Zealand waters (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae). J. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 29(4):325-335. (Ref. 40896)
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Distribution

Range Description

Apristurus exsanguis is endemic to New Zealand. It has been recorded from off Three Kings Islands, North and South Islands, southern Lord Howe Rise, Challenger Plateau, Hikurangi Trough, Chatham Rise and Campbell Plateau to about 54°S. Depth 573 to 1,200 m.
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Southwestern Pacific.
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Southwest Pacific: New Zealand.
  • Sato, K., K. Nakaya and A.L. Stewart 1999 A new species of the deep-water catshark genus Apristurus from New Zealand waters (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae). J. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 29(4):325-335. (Ref. 40896)
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

90.8 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40896))
  • Sato, K., K. Nakaya and A.L. Stewart 1999 A new species of the deep-water catshark genus Apristurus from New Zealand waters (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae). J. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 29(4):325-335. (Ref. 40896)
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Diagnostic Description

Spiral valve turns 12-15; monospondylous vertebrae 40-47; nostril diameter always greater than inter-nostril width; posterior tip of pectoral fin anterior to mid-point of paired fin interspace; the distance between axils of dorsal fins about equal to the anal fin base length; area of the first dorsal fin equal to or slightly less than the area of second; anal fin low with a moderately long base. Pale gray to pale brown in color.
  • Sato, K., K. Nakaya and A.L. Stewart 1999 A new species of the deep-water catshark genus Apristurus from New Zealand waters (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae). J. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 29(4):325-335. (Ref. 40896)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The biology of all Apristurus species within the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is very poorly known due to the uncertain taxonomy of the group. They appear to be most abundant below 1,000 m, and are the only sharks regularly taken in research trawls below 1,200 m on the Chatham Rise. A. exsanguis is a widespread mid to lower slope species. Probably bottom-living. Although its maximum recorded depth is 1,200 m there have been relatively few research trawls below this depth and it is possible that they occur deeper than this (Francis et al. 2002). Males and females mature between 650–700 mm total length. Reproduction is oviparous. The dark brown egg case is about 68 mm long and 29 mm wide. There is a slight constriction in the anterior third of the case, and its surface is entirely covered by fine fibers and fine longitudinal grooves. The edges of the egg case are flanged and end in horn-like processes with long coiled tendrils. Fecundity is unknown. Diet is probably similar to other Apristurus species (i.e., small bony fishes and caridean shrimps).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 560 - 1200 m (Ref. 40896)
  • Sato, K., K. Nakaya and A.L. Stewart 1999 A new species of the deep-water catshark genus Apristurus from New Zealand waters (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae). J. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 29(4):325-335. (Ref. 40896)
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Depth range based on 32 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 31 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 566.5 - 1198
  Temperature range (°C): 3.965 - 7.806
  Nitrate (umol/L): 21.648 - 32.231
  Salinity (PPS): 34.333 - 34.538
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.127 - 5.491
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.419 - 2.227
  Silicate (umol/l): 10.093 - 51.613

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 566.5 - 1198

Temperature range (°C): 3.965 - 7.806

Nitrate (umol/L): 21.648 - 32.231

Salinity (PPS): 34.333 - 34.538

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.127 - 5.491

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.419 - 2.227

Silicate (umol/l): 10.093 - 51.613
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Apristurus exsanguis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2003

Assessor/s
Duffy, C. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)

Reviewer/s
Fowler, S., Cavanagh, R.D. & Kyne, P.M. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Although this is an endemic species collection records indicate it is widespread and probably continuously distributed over the mid to lower slope around New Zealand. The biology of all Apristurus species within the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is very poorly known due to the uncertain taxonomy of the group. They appear to be most abundant below 1,000 m, and are the only sharks regularly taken in research trawls below 1,200 m on the Chatham Rise. As relatively little fishing occurs below 1,200 m depth a large part of these species’ populations may be effectively beyond fishing depths. Although the maximum recorded depth of A. exsanguis is 1,200 m there have been relatively few research trawls below this depth and it is possible that they occur deeper than this. There is also relatively little deepwater trawling effort in the northern part of the species distribution. This situation may change, however, as some fishing companies have conducted exploratory deepwater trips off northeast North Island.
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Population

Population
There is no information on population size.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Deepwater bottom trawling. As relatively little fishing occurs below 1,200 m and the species may occur in deeper water than this, a part of its population may be beyond current fishing depth (Anderson et al. 1998, Wetherbee 2000). There is also relatively little deepwater trawling effort in the northern part of the species distribution. This situation may change as deepwater fisheries expand.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Currently no conservation measures in place.
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Wikipedia

Flaccid catshark

The flaccid catshark, Apristurus exsanguis, is a catshark of the family Scyliorhinidae found only around New Zealand, aAlthough this species' collection records indicate it is widespread and probably continuously distributed over the mid- to lower slope around New Zealand. The biology of all Apristurus species within the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone is very poorly known due to the uncertain taxonomy of the group. They appear to be most abundant below 1,000 m, and are the only sharks regularly taken in research trawls below 1,200 m on the Chatham Rise. As relatively little fishing occurs below 1,200 m, a large part of their population may be effectively beyond fishing depths.

References[edit]

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