Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in very deep waters (Ref. 2850). Feeds on sea pens, crabs and mollusks (Ref. 2850).
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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North Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559) and the Bering Sea to off San Diego, California, USA.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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North Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 19 - 20; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 12 - 14
  • Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino 1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
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Size

Maximum size: 700 mm TL
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Max. size

70.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)); max. published weight: 9,500 g (Ref. 2850)
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Diagnostic Description

Many small cirri scattered on head and body; no preopercular spine; branchiostegal membranes fused to isthmus; peritoneum pale (Ref. 559).
  • Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino 1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
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Type Information

Holotype for Psychrolutes phrictus Stein & Bond
Catalog Number: USNM 216253
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Eagle
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Pacific Ocean: 65 mi. Off Newport, Oregon, Oregon, United States, Pacific
Depth (m): 2800 to 2800
Vessel: Yaquina
  • Holotype: Stein, D. L. & Bond, C. E. 1978. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. No. 296: 3.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 500 - 2800 m (Ref. 50610)
  • Russian Academy of Sciences 2000 Catalog of vertebrates of Kamchatka and adjacent waters. 166 p. (Ref. 50610)
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Depth range based on 40 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 40 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 545.5 - 2800
  Temperature range (°C): 1.777 - 4.156
  Nitrate (umol/L): 37.755 - 44.916
  Salinity (PPS): 33.993 - 34.649
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.523 - 2.352
  Phosphate (umol/l): 2.844 - 3.258
  Silicate (umol/l): 104.940 - 177.484

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 545.5 - 2800

Temperature range (°C): 1.777 - 4.156

Nitrate (umol/L): 37.755 - 44.916

Salinity (PPS): 33.993 - 34.649

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.523 - 2.352

Phosphate (umol/l): 2.844 - 3.258

Silicate (umol/l): 104.940 - 177.484
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 800 - 2800m.
From 800 to 2800 meters.

Habitat: bathydemersal. Occurs in very deep waters. Feeds on sea pens, crabs and molluscs (Ref. 2850).
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Psychrolutes phrictus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTATATCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGCACAGCCCTAAGCCTCCTAATTCGAGCTGAGCTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCCCTTTTAGGGGACGATCAAATTTACAATGTAATTGTTACAGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATCATAATCGGGGGTTTTGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTGATGATCGGAGCCCCCGACATAGCATTTCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTTTGACTTCTCCCACCCTCTTTTTTACTACTTCTCGCCTCTTCGGGGGTCGAAGCAGGGGCCGGAACCGGATGAACAGTCTACCCCCCTCTTGCTGGAAACCTGGCCCACGCAGGAGCCTCTGTCGATTTAACAATCTTCTCCTTACATTTAGCAGGAATTTCCTCAATTCTCGGAGCAATTAATTTTATTACAACTATCATTAACATGAAGCCCCCTGCTATCTCTCAGTATCAAACCCCTCTTTTCGTGTGGTCTGTCCTTATTACAGCCGTCCTACTACTGCTCGCCCTTCCAGTTCTTGCTGCCGGTATCACAATGCTTTTAACGGACCGAAACCTTAATACCACCTTTTTTGATCCAGCAGGGGGCGGAGACCCCATTCTTTATCAACACCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Psychrolutes phrictus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

gamefish: yes
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Wikipedia

Enophrys bison

The Buffalo sculpin, scientific name Enophrys bison, is a species of saltwater fish, a sculpin.

Distribution[edit]

This fish species occurs in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, from Kodiak Island, Alaska, to Monterey Bay, California, USA.


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Blob sculpin

The Blob Sculpin (Psychrolutes phrictus) is a species of deep-sea fish of the Psychrolutidae family. It feeds mainly on crustaceans, molluscs, and sea urchins.

It lives off the continental shelves in very deep water (839–2800 m) in the North Pacific ocean by the coasts of Japan, the Bering Sea, and California. When the female lays eggs the male guards them. Blob sculpin have spikes on their scales to protect them from enemies.[citation needed]

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