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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

A fairly common species found on continental and insular slopes (Ref. 6871), on or near the bottom (Ref. 5578). Feeds mainly on fish and cephalopods (Ref. 6871). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205), with 4-8 young in a litter (Ref. 6871), born at 28-35 cm (Ref. 26346). The flesh is high in mercury; utilized as fishmeal and source of squalene (Ref. 6871).
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Distribution

Range Description

A fairly common but poorly studied species with a wide but patchy distribution. Occurs in the eastern Atlantic (Iceland to southern Africa), Indian Ocean (Aldabra Islands and India), eastern Pacific (northern Chile) and the western Pacific, from New Zealand and southern Australia, on or near the bottom of continental and insular shelves in depths of 270-1,300 m. Locally from Sydney (New South Wales) to Perth (Western Australia), including Tasmania and the southern seamounts.
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Eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Faeroe Islands along Atlantic slope to Portugal, Senegal, Madeira, Gabon to Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia. Indian Ocean: Aldabra and the Travancore coast of India. Western Pacific: New South Wales, Australia and New Zealand. Southeast Pacific: northern Chile.
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Cosmopolitan in tropical through warm temperate seas (including Mascarenes).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 1300 mm TL
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Max. size

130 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 6577)); max. reported age: 54 years (Ref. 57506)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Not so well known but fairly common deepwater dogfish found on the upper continental slopes. Feeds on lanternfishes. Ovoviviparous, with 4 young in a litter.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Black or blackish brown in color, dorsal fins with very small fin spines, very long snout, greatly elongated labial furrows that nearly encircle mouth, lanceolate upper teeth and bladelike lower teeth with moderately long, oblique cusps, fairly slender body that does not taper abruptly from pectoral region, moderately large lateral trunk denticles with partly smooth, oval, cuspidate crowns in adults and subadults (Ref. 247).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Demersal on the slope in depths of 270 to 1,300 m; off Australia most common in 780 to 1,100 m. Feeds mainly on fish and cephalopods. In the Rockall Trough in the northeastern Atlantic, the diet was dominated by squid and micronektonic fish including myctophids. This species would appear to feed clear of the seabed on benthopelagic organisms (Mauchline and Gordon 1983). The lack of a seasonal pattern to reproduction, with females breeding throughout the year, means that the gestation period is currently unknown. Litter sizes average six with a range from 3 to 9. Annual fecundity is unknown. The productivity of this species appears to be low, with age at maturity in Australia of 15 years at 64 cm (males) and 22 years at 82 cm (females), and longevity of around 60 years (S. Irvine, pers.comm.). The maximum size of specimens in Australia is 105 cm (Daley et al. 2002).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 230 - 1500 m (Ref. 26346)
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Depth range based on 5530 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4702 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 331 - 80000
  Temperature range (°C): 2.712 - 10.382
  Nitrate (umol/L): 13.589 - 36.605
  Salinity (PPS): 34.254 - 35.761
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.842 - 6.251
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.947 - 2.571
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.932 - 74.857

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 331 - 80000

Temperature range (°C): 2.712 - 10.382

Nitrate (umol/L): 13.589 - 36.605

Salinity (PPS): 34.254 - 35.761

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.842 - 6.251

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.947 - 2.571

Silicate (umol/l): 3.932 - 74.857
 
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Depth: 230 - 1500m.
From 230 to 1500 meters.

Habitat: bathydemersal.
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Trophic Strategy

A fairly common species found on continental and insular slopes (Ref. 6871, 75154), on or near the bottom (Ref. 5578). Feeds mainly on fish and cephalopods (Ref. 6871, 58748).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous, with 4-8 young in a litter (Ref. 6871). Born at 28-35 cm (Ref. 26346). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 57 years (wild)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Centroscymnus crepidater

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 22
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2003

Assessor/s
Stevens, J. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)

Reviewer/s
Shark Specialist Group Australia & Oceania Regional Group (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Mainly a bycatch species taken by trawl and hook, although with some limited targeting for its flesh and oil. Catches in Australia have been increasing in the last few years with relaxation of mercury laws and fishers looking for non- quota species in the South East Trawl Fishery. Biomass surveys extending over 10 years in New Zealand show an increasing trend, but may be confounded by the use of different vessels. The productivity of this species appears to be low, with age at maturity in Australia of 15 years (males) and 22 years (females), and longevity of around 60 years, thus further increases in catches should be viewed with concern. However, the species is currently still abundant and a Near Threatened assessment cannot be justified at this time, although the situation should be monitored carefully.

History
  • 2003
    Least Concern
    (IUCN 2003)
  • 2003
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
Locally common around New Zealand and southern Australia where it is taken in deep water trawl and hook and line fisheries. Catches off Tasmania have been increasing in recent years; biomass surveys off New Zealand show an increase over the last 10 years but these data should be treated with caution due to problems with standardization of fishing effort (Clark et al. 2000). The average catch rate on the Chatham Rise off New Zealand in 1990 and 1993 was 126 kg/km² (Wetherbee 2000).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is coming under increased fishing pressure with the extension of deep water trawl grounds and restricted access to more desirable deep water teleosts such as orange roughy. Mainly a bycatch species but some targeting both for its oil and flesh. The livers are rich in squalene containing 61-73% by weight (Bakes and Nichols 1995). Fillets can retail for up to Aus$12/kg in Australia.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
2002 regulations in the South East Trawl fishery in Australia prohibits the landings of livers unless the accompanying carcass is also landed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: high; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

Longnose velvet dogfish

The longnose velvet dogfish, Centroselachus crepidater, is a sleeper shark of the family Somniosidae, found circumglobally in southern hemisphere subtropical seas, at depths of between 230 and 1,500 m. It reaches a length of 130 cm.

References[edit]

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