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Overview

Brief Summary

If caught, a sea wolf can bite fiercely with its long sharp front teeth; no wonder how it got its name. The benthic fish lives alone and can grow to 1.2 meters in length. It eats molluscs (whelks, large bivalves), echinoderms (sea cucumbers and sea urchins) and crustaceans. Its hind teeth are short and wide, suitable for grinding shellfish. Sea wolves live on rocky bottoms, from 10 to 400 meters deep and therefore are rare along the Dutch coast.
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Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabit rocky bottoms, sometimes over sand or mud, from 1-500 m (Ref. 9988). Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on fishes (Ref. 58426), hard-shelled mollusks, crabs, lobsters, sea urchins and other echinoderms. Solitary in habit (Ref. 9988). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Description

 The wolf fish is a dark bluish-grey in colour. There are vertical dark bars crossing the body and the dorsal fin. Growing up to 120cm, it feeds mainly on echinoderms, crabs and molluscs. The fish has a large head and powerful jaw muscles enabling it to break through the hard casings of these organisms. The canine-like front teeth are pronounced and the palate teeth are commonly well worn with the central row longer than the neighbouring rows.
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Distribution

Southern Labrador to Cape Cod, rarely to New Jersey
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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Northeast Atlantic: Spitsbergen southward to White Sea, Scandinavian coasts, North Sea, the British Isles, also Iceland and south-eastern coasts of Greenland. Northwest Atlantic: southern Labrador in Canada and western Greenland to Cape Cod in Massachusetts, USA; rarely to New Jersey, USA (Ref. 7251). Elsewhere in the Baltic Sea (east to Rügen and Bornholm Islands), Bay of Biscay and northwestern Mediterranean (Gulf of Genoa) (Ref. 57932).
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Baltic Sea, North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean: White Sea to Spitsbergen, Iceland, Faeroe Islands, Scandinavia, North Sea, British Isles, southeastern and western Greenland and east coast of North America south to Cape Cod; northwestern Mediterranean Sea rec
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Northeastern Atlantic: Spitsbergen southward to White Sea, Scandinavian coasts, North Sea, the British Isles, also Iceland and south-eastern coasts of Greenland. Northwestern Atlantic: southern Labrador in Canada and western Greenland to Cape Cod in Massachusetts, USA; rarely to New Jersey, USA.
  • Bigelow, H.B.and Schroeder, W.C.,1953; Barsukov, V.V., 1986; Frimodt, C., 1995; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 1500 mm TL
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Max. size

150 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); max. published weight: 23.6 kg (Ref. 40637)
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to 150 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 24 kg.
  • Bigelow, H.B.and Schroeder, W.C.,1953; Barsukov, V.V., 1986; Frimodt, C., 1995; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Diagnostic Description

Ground color usually greyish-green but almost black or reddish -brown. Body with 10-15 transverse, dark bars extended to the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).
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Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Found to depths of 500 m over hard clay bottoms.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 1 - 600 m (Ref. 58426), usually 18 - 110 m (Ref. 7135)
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Depth range based on 15658 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 13490 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -9 - 1168
  Temperature range (°C): -2.072 - 12.593
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.417 - 22.225
  Salinity (PPS): 29.776 - 35.421
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.207 - 7.862
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.262 - 1.806
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.488 - 19.024

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -9 - 1168

Temperature range (°C): -2.072 - 12.593

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.417 - 22.225

Salinity (PPS): 29.776 - 35.421

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.207 - 7.862

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.262 - 1.806

Silicate (umol/l): 1.488 - 19.024
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Habitat Type: Marine

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 The adults are usually found in deep waters, from 100-300 m, but can range to depths of 500 m. Young may be found at 10-30 m and possibly in the Laminaria zone. They are normally found on rocky seabeds where they often occupy fissures and holes with only the head protruding, and they may also be found on sand or mud.
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Depth: 1 - 500m.
From 1 to 500 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Inhabits rocky bottoms, sometimes over sand or mud, from 1-500 m. Feeds on hard-shelled molluscs, crabs, lobsters, sea urchins and other echinoderms. Solitary in habit (Ref. 9988). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Demersal; marine; depth range; 1-500 m. Inhabit rocky bottoms, sometimes over sand or mud, from 1-500 m. Solitary in habit.
  • Bigelow, H.B.and Schroeder, W.C.,1953; Barsukov, V.V., 1986; Frimodt, C., 1995; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Inhabit rocky bottoms, sometimes over sand or mud, from 1-500 m (Ref. 9988). Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on fishes (Ref. 58426), hard-shelled mollusks, crabs, lobsters, sea urchins and other echinoderms. Solitary in habit (Ref. 9988). It is preyed upon by cod. Parasites of the species include 1 protozoan, 11 trematodes, 1 myxosporidian, 1 cestode, 3 nematodes, 1 hirudinean, 1 crustacean and 1 copepod (Ref. 5951).
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Feed on hard-shelled molluscs, crabs, lobsters, sea urchins and other echinoderms.
  • Bigelow, H.B.and Schroeder, W.C.,1953; Barsukov, V.V., 1986; Frimodt, C., 1995; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on echinoderms, molluscs, crustaceans and fish, especially redfish
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Life Cycle

Males guard a clutch of eggs right up to the time of hatching (Ref. 6407). During brood protection, the male hardly feeds (Ref. 6407).
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Reproduction

Eggs deposited in spherical clumps at about 10-120 m in July-February (May-August in White Sea), larvae hatching January-July, pelagic until 5-6 cm TL (late autumn).
  • Bigelow, H.B.and Schroeder, W.C.,1953; Barsukov, V.V., 1986; Frimodt, C., 1995; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Whiteheat, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anarhichas cf. lupus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anarhichas lupus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Anarhichas lupus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGCTGGATTTTCTCGACTAATCACAAAGACATTGGCACCCTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCATGAGCCGGAATGGTAGGCACAGCCCTA---AGCCTCCTCATTCGAGCGGAGCTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCCCTCTTGGGGGAC---GACCAAATTTATAATGTGATTGTTACGGCACATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTGATACCAATTATAATTGGGGGTTTCGGAAACTGGCTTGTCCCCCTAATG---ATTGGGGCCCCGGACATAGCATTTCCCCGGATAAACAACATGAGCTTTTGACTTCTACCCCCATCTTTTCTCCTTCTCCTTGCCTCTTCCGGGGTAGAGGCTGGAGCTGGGACAGGGTGAACAGTTTATCCCCCTCTCTCGGGTAACTTAGCCCATGCAGGAGCCTCTGTTGATTTG---ACAATCTTTTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGAATTTCTTCAATCCTTGGGGCAATTAATTTCATTACAACCATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCAGCGATTTCTCAGTACCAAACACCCCTCTTCGTTTGATCAGTGCTTATTACGGCCGTCCTGCTTCTCCTTTCCCTCCCCGTACTTGCAGCT---GGTATTACCATACTCCTAACAGACCGTAACCTTAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCCGGAGGGGGGGACCCAATCCTTTATCAACACTTGTTTTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCTGAAGTATATATTCTTATTCTCCCCGGCTTCGGAATAATCTCACACATTGTTGCCTATTATTCTGGTAAAAAA---GAACCTTTCGGGTATATGGGTATGGTATGAGCAATGATGGCCATCGGCCTTCTAGGATTCATCGTATGGGCCCACCACATGTTCACGGTAGGGATGGATGTAGACACACGCGCTTACTTTACCTCTGCCACCATAATTATCGCAATCCCCACAGGCGTAAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTT---GCCACC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Wikipedia

Atlantic wolffish

The Atlantic wolffish (Anarhichas lupus), also known as the seawolf, Atlantic catfish, ocean catfish, devil fish, wolf eel (the common name for its Pacific relative), or sea cat, is a marine fish, the largest of the wolffish family Anarhichadidae. The numbers of the Atlantic wolffish are rapidly being depleted, most likely due to overfishing and bycatch, and is currently a Species of Concern according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Fisheries Service.[1] Although it looks fearsome, the Atlantic wolffish is only a threat to humans when defending itself out of the water.[citation needed] Apart from their unique appearance wolffish are distinguished by the natural antifreeze they produce to keep their blood moving fluidly in their very cold habitat, involvement by both the male and female in brood bearing, and the large size of their eggs. They are also an important factor in controlling green crab and sea urchin populations, which can become overly disruptive to habitats if left unchecked. Wolffish population success is also an important indicator of the health of other bottom-dweller populations, such as cod.[2]

Characteristics[edit]

Atlantic wolffish

In spite of its large size, the Atlantic wolffish has retained the bodily form and general external characteristics of small blennies (Blennioidei). The largest specimen recorded measured 150 cm (almost 5 ft) long and weighed almost 18 kg (40 lbs)[3] Its body is long, subcylindrical in front, compressed in the caudal portion, smooth and slippery, the rudimentary scales being embedded and almost hidden in the skin. Atlantic wolffish vary in color, usually seen as purplish-brown, a dull olive green, or blueish gray.[4] An even dorsal fin extends the whole length of the back, and a similar fin from the vent to the caudal fin, as in blennies. The pectorals are large and rounded and the pelvic fins are entirely absent. Its obtuse, eel-like body type makes the fish swim slowly, undulating from side to side, like an eel.[5]

The Atlantic wolffish's distinguishing feature, from which it gets its common name, is its extensive teeth structure. Its dentition distinguishes the Atlantic wolffish from all the other members of the Anarhichadidae family. Both the lower and upper jaws are armed with four to six fang-like, strong, conical teeth. Behind the conical teeth in the upper jaw, there are three rows of crushing teeth. The central row has four pairs of molars and the outer rows house blunted conical teeth. The lower jaw has two rows of molars behind the primary conical teeth. The wolffish's throat is also scattered with serrated teeth.

Atlantic wolffish inhabit both the west and east coasts of the Atlantic. They are seen as far north as the Davis Strait, of the Canadian territory of Nunavut, populating the shores of Greenland and Nova Scotia, extending down as far as Cape Cod. Although they are seldom seen south of Cape Cod, there have been sightings in New Jersey. The most dense populations are in Georges Bank, the Gulf of Maine and the Great South Channel.[6]

Atlantic wolffish are primarily stationary fish, rarely moving from their rocky homes. They are benthic dwellers, living on the hard ocean floor, frequently seen in nooks and small caves. They like cold water, at depths of 76 to 120 meters (250 to 400 ft). They are usually found in waters of 34-37°F (1-2°C) and sometimes as low as 30°F (-1°C). Since they live in nearly freezing waters, to keep their blood moving smoothly, it contains a natural antifreeze.[7]

Two related species occur in the corresponding latitudes of the North Pacific Ocean. In the north, they are esteemed as food, both fresh and preserved. They are marketed in Britain as "Scotch halibut" and "Scarborough woof", or, simply "woof" in other areas of the northeast coast, and are a popular ingredient in fish and chips.[8] The oil extracted from the liver is said to be equal in quality to the best cod liver oil.[citation needed]

In Iceland, the species is called steinbítur, which literally translates to "stone biter".

Diet[edit]

Drawing of the jaws of the seawolf from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica

Atlantic wolffish use their strong jaws to eat hardshell mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms. They do not eat other fish. They are known to frequently eat large whelks (Buccinum), cockles (Polynices, Chrysodomus and Sipho), sea clams (Mactra), large hermit crabs, starfish, sea urchins and green crabs (Carcinus maenas). They are an important predator of sea urchins and green crabs, whose populations escalate rapidly and can negatively affect the health of a marine system.[9]

Reproduction[edit]

The manner of which Atlantic wolffish fertilize their eggs distinguishes them from many fish. Instead of the female depositing her eggs in the open ocean for the male fish to fertilize and then continue on his way, they are internally fertilized and the male wolffish stays with the nest and protects the eggs for as long as four months, until the brood is strong enough to gain independence. Their eggs are 5.5–6.0 mm in diameter, (among the largest fish eggs known), yellow tinted and opaque. The eggs are laid on the ocean floor, many times in shoal water, sticking together in loose clumps, surrounded by seaweed and stones. Atlantic wolffish mature relatively late, at age six.[10]

Conservation status[edit]

According to scientific data, the Atlantic wolffish's population has decreased drastically due to overfishing and bycatch. Bottom-trawling vessels also disrupt the wolffish's rocky underwater habitat when they drag large nets across the ocean floor, with heavy weights holding the nets to the ocean bottom. The nets are indiscriminate in what they catch and the heavy weights and nets are harmful to the benthic terrain and its inhabitants. Recreational fishing has also threatened the survival of the Atlantic wolffish.[11]

According to data compiled by the National Marine Fisheries Service, since 1983, the landings from U.S. fishing vessels of Atlantic wolffish as bycatch has declined 95%, landing 64.7 metric tons (mt) in 2007.[12] In 1950, when the NMFS started collecting their data, 1,098 mt of Atlantic wolffish were landed, worth $137,008. In 1970, 271.2 mt; the landings peaked in 1983 at 1,207 mt, bringing in $455,291; rapidly depleting again and by 1990 the landings were down to 400 mt, and by 2002, 154 mt. The last available data from the NMFS were in 2007 at 64.7 mt, worth a total of $100,341.[13]

Currently, the Atlantic wolffish is categorized as a Species of Concern under the National Marine Fisheries Service. Species of Concern are those species about which the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has some concerns regarding status and threats, but for which insufficient information is available to indicate a need to list the species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA).

On October 1, 2008, the Conservation Law Foundation (CLF), along with Dr. Erica Fuller and Dr. Les Watling, petitioned the US NMFS for the protection of the Atlantic wolffish under the ESA. The petition called for the protection of the Atlantic wolffish and wolffish habitat throughout the US northwest Atlantic waters. It recommended a designation of critical habitat be set up to close off both commercial and recreational fishing in those areas (which would overlap closed areas for various other fishing industries for the benefit of fishermen), the development of catch and release protocols, educational programs for fishermen in the Gulf of Maine area, and possession prohibitions.[14] On January 1, 2009 the NMFS announced a positive 90-day finding that the petition was warranted, which triggered the initiation of a status review which will result in a decision on whether to list the species under the ESA. On November 6, 2009, the NMFS issued a finding that the proposed protections were not warranted.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Atlantic Wolfish, Species of Concern." NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/species/atlanticwolffish_detailed.pdf (Reviewed October 8, 2008).
  2. ^ Bigelow, Henry B. and William C. Schroeder. "Fishes of the Gulf of Maine." Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, 1953. v 53; p503-506. http://gma.org/fogm/Anarhichas_lupus.htm
  3. ^ "Atlantic Wolffish, Anarhichas lupus: Species of Concern." NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (Retrieved October 7, 2008).
  4. ^ Bigelow, Henry B. and William C. Schroeder. "Fishes of the Gulf of Maine." Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, 1953. v 53; p503-506. http://gma.org/fogm/Anarhichas_lupus.htm
  5. ^ Bigelow, Henry B, and William C. Schroeder. "Fishes of the Gulf of Maine." Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, 1953. v 53; p503-506. http://gma.org/fogm/Anarhichas_lupus.htm
  6. ^ Atlanitc Wolffish: Conservation Law Foundation (CLF) Fact Sheet. http://www.clf.org/uploadedFiles/CLF/Programs/Healthy_Oceans/Ocean_Life/Wolffish%20fact%20petitionfiled.pdf
  7. ^ Bigelow, Henry B, and William C. Schroeder. "Fishes of the Gulf of Maine." Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, 1953. v 53; p503-506. http://gma.org/fogm/Anarhichas_lupus.htm
  8. ^ "Underwater Photography - Wolf Fish"
  9. ^ Bigelow, Henry B, and William C. Schroeder. "Fishes of the Gulf of Maine." Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, 1953. v 53; p503-506. http://gma.org/fogm/Anarhichas_lupus.htm
  10. ^ Bigelow, Henry B, and William C. Schroeder. "Fishes of the Gulf of Maine." Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, 1953. v 53; p503-506. http://gma.org/fogm/Anarhichas_lupus.htm
  11. ^ Conservation Law Foundation, DR. Erica Fuller and Dr. Les Watling. "Petition for a Rule to List the U.S. Population of Atlantic Wolffish (Anarhichas lupus) as an Endangered Species Under the Endangered Species Act." October 1, 2008.http://www.clf.org/uploadedFiles/CLF/Programs/Healthy_Oceans/Ocean_Life/Atlantic%20Wolffish%20Petition%20Final.pdf
  12. ^ NMFS Landings Query Results; http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/pls/webpls/MF_ANNUAL_LANDINGS.RESULTS
  13. ^ NMFS Landings Query Results; http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/pls/webpls/MF_ANNUAL_LANDINGS.RESULTS
  14. ^ Conservation Law Foundation, DR. Erica Fuller and Dr. Les Watling. "Petition for a Rule to List the U.S. Population of Atlantic Wolffish (Anarhichas lupus) as an Endangered Species Under the Endangered Species Act." October 1, 2008.http://www.clf.org/uploadedFiles/CLF/Programs/Healthy_Oceans/Ocean_Life/Atlantic%20Wolffish%20Petition%20Final.pdf
  15. ^ http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/fr/fr74-57436.pdf
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