Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found among algae patches of coral or rocky reefs (Ref. 9710). Also found in weedy bottoms (Ref. 30573). Males territorial (Ref. 9710). Edible but not tasty (Ref. 559). Female length is from Ref. 9137.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found from the Red Sea to South Africa, east to Vanuatu, north to southern Japan (Kochi Prefectory),Taiwan, and south to central northwestern Australia (Burgess and Axelrod 1974, Yogo et al. 1986, Parenti and Randall 2000).
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Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa (Ref. 35918) and Papua New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to Australia.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to New Guinea and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to northern Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 12; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
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Size

Maximum size: 200 mm TL
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Max. size

20.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4392)); 15 cm TL (female)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits weedy, rocky reefs (Ref. 559). Edible but not tasty (Ref. 559).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Males with long filaments (Ref. 1623).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species is found among algae patches (especially in mixed Sargassum and seagrasses), soft corals with mixed rubble or rocky reefs (Kuiter 2002). It is seen singly in weedy rocky areas. It sleeps below large rocks and macroalgae.

The maximum recorded sizes were 20.0 cm TL (male) and 15 cm TL (female) (Randall 1986), 27 cm (TL) (Masuda et al. 1975).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine
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Depth range based on 31 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 12 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.8 - 74
  Temperature range (°C): 23.574 - 27.236
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 1.174
  Salinity (PPS): 34.981 - 35.503
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.484 - 4.855
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.203
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.777 - 3.155

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.8 - 74

Temperature range (°C): 23.574 - 27.236

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 1.174

Salinity (PPS): 34.981 - 35.503

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.484 - 4.855

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.203

Silicate (umol/l): 0.777 - 3.155
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Occurs inshore (Ref. 75154). Found among algae patches of coral or rocky reefs (Ref. 9710). Also found in weedy bottoms (Ref. 30573). Present in seagrass beds at adult stage. Omnivore (Ref. 41878).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pteragogus flagellifer

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGATTCTTCTCGACCAATCACAAAGATATCGGCACCCTTTACCTTGTTTTCGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTTGGCACGGCCCTA---AGTCTCCTAATCCGGGCTGAACTAAGTCAACCAGGAGCCCTTCTGGGCGAT---GATCAAATTTATAACGTAATCGTTACTGCTCACGCATTCGTAATGATTTTCTTCATGGTTATACCCATCATGATTGGGGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTGATCCCCCTAATG---ATCGGGGCCCCTGATATGGCCTTCCCACGAATGAATAACATGAGCTTCTGACTACTTCCCCCTTCTTTCCTTCTCCTCCTTGCCTCCTCTGGTGTAGAAGCTGGAGCTGGAACCGGGTGAACAGTCTACCCCCCTCTTGCAGGGAACTTAGCCCATGCAGGCGCTTCTGTAGACCTA---ACAATCTTCTCACTGCACTTAGCCGGTATTTCGTCTATTCTGGGGGCAATTAACTTCATTACTACAATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCAGCAATCTCTCAATATCAAACACCTCTGTTTGTGTGGGCTGTTCTAATTACGGCGGTCCTTCTGCTTCTCTCCCTCCCAGTTCTTGCTGCC---GGTATTACAATGCTTCTAACAGACCGAAACTTGAACACAACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCAGGAGGAGGTGATCCTATTCTATACCAGCACCTTTTCTGATTCTTTGGCCATCCTGAGGTTTATATCCTTATTCTTCCCGGCTTCGGAATAATCTCCCATATCGTTGCCTACTACTCCGGCAAGAAA---GAACCTTTTGGTTATATGGGCATGGTCTGAGCGATGATGGCAATCGGACTTCTAGGCTTCATTGTATGAGCCCATCACATGTTTACAGTAGGCATGGACGTAGACACAGCAGCCTACTTTACATCAGCAACAATGATTATTGCCATTCCTACAGGAGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTA---GCAACA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pteragogus flagellifer

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Sadovy, Y. & Pontillas, J.

Reviewer/s
Craig, M.T. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in a variety of habitats with no known major threats and therefore is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species is common in sheltered bays (Kuiter et al. 2002). There is no population information available for this species. It is very rare in southern Japan (Masuda et al. 1975). It is rare in the Calamianes group of islands, Philippines but this may be because of its cryptic habit (Werner and Allen 2000).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known to this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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