Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: croaker (English), drum (English), polla (Espanol), verrugato (Espanol)
 
Umbrina dorsalis Gill, 1862

Longfin croaker,     Long-fin drum

Body oblong, somewhat compressed, lower profile ~ horizontal; back high, arched; head low, broad, conical; snout < eye; mouth ~ horizontal, under projecting snout; chin with 1 short, thick rigid barbel with a pore at its tip, and 2 pairs of pores beside its base; teeth in bands on each jaw, outer row on top jaw larger; 18-25 gill rakers; preopercle finely serrated; dorsal fin with a deep notch, X + I, 29-33, spines slender, second dorsal long base; anal small, II, 7-8 rays, 2nd  spine thick, ¾ length of 1st  ray; pectoral short, not reaching tip of pelvic, 15-17 rays; tail edge straight to slightly concave; scales rough on head and body, smooth on fins; bases of soft dorsal and anal fins with scaly sheath; lateral line scales 50-53.

Back blue-grey, silvery below; sides of body with indistinct, oblique dark lines along scale rows; inside gill chamber very dark, this color visible through gill cover; dorsal dark, pale line along middle; tail dark; anal pale base, dark outer margin, sometimes yellow tint; pectoral dark; pelvics yellow-brown; juveniles lack stripes, larger ones with 5-8 wide dark saddles on back.

Size: 35 cm.

Habitat: coastal sandy shores and bays, lagoons.

Depth: 1-20 m.

The mouth of the Gulf of California to northern Peru.
   
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Biology

Found in sandy coasts and bays, also in littoral pools (Ref. 9118). Feeds on crustaceans and worms (Ref. 9118). Considered a good food fish (Ref. 9118). Sold fresh and its meat is highly valued (Ref. 55763).
  • Chao, L.N. 1995 Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9118&speccode=13985 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Baja California and the mouth of the Gulf of California to northern Peru.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Ecuador.
  • Chao, L.N. 1995 Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9118&speccode=13985 External link.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 20 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 35.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 350 mm TL
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Max. size

40.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763))
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Diagnostic Description

Body oblong, its back arched; snout prominent; mouth small and inferior; lower jaw enclosed by upper; chin with a stiff barbel; edge of preopercle serrate; lower branch of first gill arch with 18 to 25 gill rakers; second dorsal fin long, with 29 to 33 soft rays; body silvery, bluish-gray; belly pale; flanks with dark stripes; branchial cavity fairly dark (Ref. 55763).
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Type Information

Lectotype; Syntype for Umbrina dorsalis Gill
Catalog Number: USNM 3696
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: Lower California, Cape San Lucas., Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Lectotype: Walker, H. J. & Radford, K. W. 1992. Fishery Bulletin. 90: 580, 7.; Syntype: Gill, T. N. 1862. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 14 (3-4): 257.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Umbrina dorsalis Gill
Catalog Number: USNM 316654
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: Lower California, Cape San Lucas., Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Paralectotype: Walker, H. J. & Radford, K. W. 1992. Fishery Bulletin. 90: 580, 7.; Syntype: Gill, T. N. 1862. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 14 (3-4): 257.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This benthopelagic species is found in sandy coasts and bays to depths of 20m. It also occurs in littoral pools. It feeds on crustaceans and worms. In general, the genus Umbrina (except for U. Bussingi, a deep water species) can be occasionally found in estuaries and coastal lagoons along the tropical eastern Pacific coast (Cooke, 1992).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

benthopelagic; marine
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 3

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 3
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic
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Trophic Strategy

Found in sandy coasts and bays, also in litoral pools. Feeds on crustaceans and worms.
  • Chao, L.N. 1995 Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9118&speccode=13985 External link.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Chao, L. & Espinosa, H.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific. There are no major threats for this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
No population information is available for this species.

In Cabo Pulmo, Mexico, this fish was not found, although it was previously recorded there (Villarreal-Cavazos et al. 2000). In Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, still in México, this fish was captured four times within 12 (one each month) field trips throughout a year (Rojo-Vázquez et al. 2001).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. However, this species is an esteemed food fish and can be found in local markets. Its is caught as by-catch in shrimp trawls and is a target species for artisinal fisheries.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Chao, L.N. 1995 Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9118&speccode=13985 External link.
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