Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found over sandy bottoms (Ref. 9118). Feed on polychaetes, small shrimps, crabs and mollusks (Ref. 9118). Oviparous, multiple pelagic spawner (Ref. 51256).
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Distribution

Range Description

Genyonemus lineatus is distributed from Barkley Sound in British Columbia, Canada to southern Baja California, Mexico.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Eastern Pacific: Barkley Sound in British Columbia, Canada to southern Baja California, Mexico; rare north of California, USA.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 13 - 16; Dorsal soft rays (total): 21 - 24; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 11 - 12; Vertebrae: 25
  • Hart, J.L. 1973 Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p. (Ref. 6885)
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Size

Maximum size: 410 mm TL
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Max. size

41.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 56049)
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
  • Shanks, A.L. and G.L. Eckert 2005 Population persistence of California Current fishes and benthic crustaceans: a marine drift paradox. Ecol. Monogr. 75:505-524. (Ref. 56049)
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Diagnostic Description

Pelvic fins with fleshy appendage at base, first ray with free thread-like tip.
  • Hart, J.L. 1973 Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p. (Ref. 6885)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Adult White Croakers are epibenthic and occur on sandy bottoms. They have been taken to depths of 183 m. Their diet consists of smaller fish, and epibenthic and benthic invertebrates including polychaetes, clams, shrimp and crabs (Meador et al. 2004). This species is a multiple spawner.

Systems
  • Marine
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Habitat Type: Marine

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Environment

benthopelagic; marine; depth range ? - 183 m (Ref. 2850), usually ? - 30 m (Ref. 2850)
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Depth range based on 10 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 195.81
  Temperature range (°C): 8.018 - 8.165
  Nitrate (umol/L): 23.221 - 28.779
  Salinity (PPS): 33.409 - 34.038
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.115 - 3.625
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.970 - 2.301
  Silicate (umol/l): 34.412 - 40.325

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 195.81

Temperature range (°C): 8.018 - 8.165

Nitrate (umol/L): 23.221 - 28.779

Salinity (PPS): 33.409 - 34.038

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.115 - 3.625

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.970 - 2.301

Silicate (umol/l): 34.412 - 40.325
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 183m.
Recorded at 183 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Associations

Known prey organisms

Genyonemus lineatus (white croaker) preys on:
Engraulis mordax
zooplankton

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Southern California (Marine, Sublittoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • T. A. Clark, A. O. Flechsig, R. W. Grigg, Ecological studies during Project Sealab II, Science 157(3795):1381-1389, from p. 1384 (1967).
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Known predators

Genyonemus lineatus (white croaker) is prey of:
Sebastes miniatus
Scorpaena guttata
Zalophus californianus

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Southern California (Marine, Sublittoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • T. A. Clark, A. O. Flechsig, R. W. Grigg, Ecological studies during Project Sealab II, Science 157(3795):1381-1389, from p. 1384 (1967).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

A multiple spawner (Ref. 51256).
  • Macchi, G.J. 1998 Preliminary estimate of spawning frequency and batch fecundity of striped weakfish, Cynoscion striatus, in coastal waters off Buenos Aires province. Fish. Bull. 96(2):375-381. (Ref. 27784)
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 15 years (wild)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Genyonemus lineatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GGCACAGCTTTG---AGCCTTCTAATCCGAGCAGAGCTAAGTCAACCCGGCTCACTCCTCGGAGAT---GACCAGATCTATAACGTAATTGTTACAGCCCATGCCTTCGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCCGTCATGATCGGAGGTTTTGGAAATTGACTTATCCCCCTAATG---ATTGGAGCCCCTGACATGGCATTCCCTCGCATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCCCCTTCTTTCCTCCTGCTCCTAACCTCCTCAGGCGTAGAAGCTGGGGCGGGGACCGGATGAACCGTCTACCCCCCACTCGCTGGAAACCTCGCACACGCAGGGGCTTCCGTCGACCTG---GCCATCTTCTCCCTACACCTCGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATCCTGGGGGCCATCAACTTTATTACCACAATTGTTAACATGAAACCCCCCGCTATCTCCCAATACCAGACACCCCTGTTTGTATGAGCTGTTTTAATTACCGCTGTTCTCCTACTACTCTCACTCCCTGTCTTAGCTGCC------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------G
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Genyonemus lineatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Chao, N.L. & Starnes, W.C.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.

Justification
Genyonemus lineatus has been assessed as Near Threatened. This species almost reaches the Vulnerable criteria under A1b, based on the Californian population landing data. However, this species is more broadly distributed and the impact of fishing in the rest of its range is unknown. Also, the fishing effort in California has decreased over the last 20 years, which may partly explain the decline in landings. Given that California is the centre of its distribution, and with the additional pressure of pollution, the trend is worrying. A more thorough assessment of fishing effort across its entire distribution is recommended.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population
Genyonemus lineatus is considered common and abundant (Moore 2001). The Californian landing of this species has declined from 150,000 lb to 30,000 lb in two decades (California Department of Fish and Game/ NOAA Fisheries Service 2009). Whilst fishing pressure is being reduced in this region, it is likely that the decline in landings also reflects a population decline. This is likely to reflect about half of the species range (N.L. Chao pers. comm. 2009).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Genyonemus lineatus is of minor commercial importance and the latest Californian landings data from 2004 record approximately 30,000 lb per year (California Department of Fish and Game/ NOAA Fisheries Service 2009). Individuals of this species inhabit nearshore areas including the vicinity of wastewater discharge pipes where there are high levels of PCBs and DDTs. Adults exposed to such pollutants show impaired reproduction and liver disease (Malins et al. 1987, Cross and Hose 1988). Therefore this species is threatened by harvesting and pollution.
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Near Threatened (NT)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for the White Croaker.

Monitoring of the population trends and harvest levels of this species is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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Wikipedia

White croaker

White croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) is a species of croaker occurring in the Eastern Pacific. White croakers have been taken from Magdalena Bay, Baja California, to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, but are not abundant north of San Francisco. White croakers swim in loose schools at or near the bottom of sandy areas. Sometimes they aggregate in the surf zone or in shallow bays and lagoons. Most of the time they are found in offshore areas at depths of 3 to 30 meters (9.8 to 98.4 ft). On rare occasions they are fairly abundant at depths as great as 200 meters (660 feet).

The white croaker is the only species of in the genus Genyonemus. Other common names for the fish include Pasadena trout, tommy croaker, and little bass.

Description[edit]

Identification

The body of the white croaker is elongate and somewhat compressed. The head is oblong and bluntly rounded, with a mouth that is somewhat underneath the head. The color is incandescent brownish to yellowish on the back becoming silvery below. The fins are yellow to white. The white croaker is one of five California croakers that have mouths located under their heads (subterminal). They can be distinguished from the California corbina and yellowfin croaker by the absence of a single fleshy projection, or barbel, at the tip of the lower jaw. The 12 to 15 spines in the first dorsal fin serve to distinguish white croakers from all the other croakers with sub-terminal mouths, since none of these has more than 11 spines in this fin.

White croakers eat a variety of fishes, squid, shrimp, octopus, worms, small crabs, clams and other items, either living or dead. While the ages of white croakers have not been determined conclusively, it is thought that some live as long as 15 or more years. Some spawn for the first time when they are between 2 and 3 years old. At this age they are only 12 to 15 cm (4.7 to 5.9 in) long and weigh less than 45 grams (0.099 pounds). Also have barbels on the lower lip. The largest recorded specimen was 41.4 cm (16.3 in), no weight recorded; however, a 36.8 cm (14.5 in) white croaker weighed 640 grams (1 lb 6½ oz).

Fishing information[edit]

These fish can be caught on almost any kind of animal bait that is fished from piers or jetties in sandy or sandy mud areas. In fact, they are so easily hooked that most anglers consider them a nuisance of the worst sort. If a person desires to fish specifically for white croakers a tough, difficult-to-steal bait, such as squid, is recommended. When hooked, they put up little or no fight. Fishing and catching is good throughout the year.

Cuisine[edit]

White croaker meat has been used as a co-ingredient in creating Crab stick.

References[edit]

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