Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Frequently encountered in coastal waters (Ref. 27000). Occurs near the bottom or in midwater, over muddy substrates (Ref. 5377). Mesopelagic (Ref. 5951). Found in small schools (Ref. 4968). Feeds on fishes (Ref. 5213) and squids (Ref. 5951). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 27363.
  • Karrer, C. and A. Post 1990 Zeidae. p. 631-633. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6953)
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Distribution

Atlantic Western Indian Ocean: Somalia (Ref. 30573) and India to South Africa, but not in the Red Sea. Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to South Africa. Western Atlantic: Sable Island, Canada to northern North Carolina, USA (Ref. 7251) to northern Argentina (Ref. 27363). Reported from the Mediterranean (Ref. 93173). Reported from Indonesia (Ref. 5978) but not in the Pacific Ocean.
  • Karrer, C. and A. Post 1990 Zeidae. p. 631-633. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6953)
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Cosmopolitan.
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Western Atlantic: Sable Island, Nova Scotia, and perhaps the Laurentian Channel that separates the Nova Scotian Banks from the Newfoundland Banks to the outer part of the continental shelf at the latitude of Chesapeake Bay It reaches the inner parts of the Gulf of Maine.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Fischer, W., I. Sousa, C. Silva, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Feral and A. Massinga, 1990; Karrer, C. and A. Post, 1990; Maigret, J. and B. Ly, 1986; Qu?, J.-C., 1986; Reiner, F., 1996; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9 - 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 24 - 26; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 24 - 26
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1986 Zeidae. p. 435-438. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4253)
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Size

Maximum size: 800 mm TL
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Max. size

80.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4253)); max. published weight: 3,200 g (Ref. 7251)
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1986 Zeidae. p. 435-438. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4253)
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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to 80.0 cm TL (male/unsexed); max. weight: 3,200.0 g.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Fischer, W., I. Sousa, C. Silva, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Feral and A. Massinga, 1990; Karrer, C. and A. Post, 1990; Maigret, J. and B. Ly, 1986; Qu?, J.-C., 1986; Reiner, F., 1996; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

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Diagnostic Description

Description

Found near the bottom or in midwater, in small schools. Feeds on various kinds of fish (Ref. 5213).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Body silvery, with a dusky mid lateral spot just posterior to and slightly above end of pectoral fin (Ref. 4253). Fin membranes of spinous dorsal, pectoral, pelvic and caudal fins blackish (Ref. 27363).
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1986 Zeidae. p. 435-438. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4253)
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Depth: 90 - 600m.
From 90 to 600 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic.
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Environment

benthopelagic; marine; depth range 50 - 600 m (Ref. 4968), usually 150 - 300 m (Ref. 36731)
  • Bianchi, G., K.E. Carpenter, J.-P. Roux, F.J. Molloy, D. Boyer and H.J. Boyer 1999 Field guide to the living marine resources of Namibia. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. Rome, FAO. 265 p., 11 colour plates. (Ref. 36731)
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Depth range based on 874 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 525 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 25 - 983
  Temperature range (°C): 3.553 - 20.781
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.212 - 28.016
  Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 36.472
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.659 - 6.961
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.310 - 1.940
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.101 - 17.139

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 25 - 983

Temperature range (°C): 3.553 - 20.781

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.212 - 28.016

Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 36.472

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.659 - 6.961

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.310 - 1.940

Silicate (umol/l): 2.101 - 17.139
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Benthopelagic; marine; depth range 50 - 600 m. Commonly in coastal waters and in small schools. Occurs near mud bottoms or in midwater.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Fischer, W., I. Sousa, C. Silva, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Feral and A. Massinga, 1990; Karrer, C. and A. Post, 1990; Maigret, J. and B. Ly, 1986; Qu?, J.-C., 1986; Reiner, F., 1996; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Trophic Strategy

Frequently encountered in coastal waters (Ref. 27000). Occurs near the bottom or in midwater, over muddy substrates (Ref. 5377). Found in small schools (Ref. 4968). Feeds on fishes (Ref. 5213).
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Fishes.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Fischer, W., I. Sousa, C. Silva, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Feral and A. Massinga, 1990; Karrer, C. and A. Post, 1990; Maigret, J. and B. Ly, 1986; Qu?, J.-C., 1986; Reiner, F., 1996; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Spawns in summer.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Fischer, W., I. Sousa, C. Silva, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Feral and A. Massinga, 1990; Karrer, C. and A. Post, 1990; Maigret, J. and B. Ly, 1986; Qu?, J.-C., 1986; Reiner, F., 1996; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Zenopsis conchifer

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Zenopsis conchifera

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Zenopsis conchifera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Schneider, W. 1990 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)
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