Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on the upper continental and insular slopes, on or near the bottom (Ref. 247). Feeds on small benthic and midwater bony fishes, squid, and crustaceans (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Minimum depth reported from taken from Ref. 5578.
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Distribution

Northwest Atlantic: North Carolina, USA
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range Description

Western Central Atlantic: USA (Atlantic coast off North Carolina, Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi), and the lesser Antilles (Dominica). Eastern central Atlantic: Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Canary Islands, the Azores, Nigeria, Gabon, Zaire. Southeast Atlantic: Namibia, South Africa (Northern and Western Provinces). Western Indian Ocean: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), Walters Shoal, Gulf of Aden. Western central Pacific: Philippines (Mindinao, Leyte, Luzon, Marinduque, Siquijor and Bohol) (Compagno in prep.).
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Northwest Atlantic: North Carolina, USA. Eastern Atlantic: West Sahara to Senegal, Nigeria, Gabon to Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia and South Africa (Ref. 5578). Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea (Ref. 85183). Western Central Pacific: Philippines.
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Cosmopolitan, except eastern Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 790 mm TL
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Max. size

79.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 6577))
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Diagnostic Description

A longnose dogfish with a long, low 1st dorsal fin and a subcaudal keel on underside of caudal peduncle (Ref. 5578). Brownish-grey or dark grey in color (Ref. 5578).
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Type Information

Holotype for Deania profundorum
Catalog Number: USNM 70258
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Locality: Sta. 5491, Bet. Leyte and Mindanao, Philippines, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Holotype: Smith, H. M. & Radcliffe, L. 1912. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 41 (1877): 681, fig. 3; pl. 53.
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Paratype for Deania profundorum
Catalog Number: USNM 99492
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Balicasag Id.;
Depth (m): 717 to 717
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Smith, H. M. & Radcliffe, L. 1912. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 41 (1877): 681, fig. 3; pl. 53.
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Paratype for Deania profundorum
Catalog Number: USNM 99493
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Monpog Is.
Depth (m): 969 to 969
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Smith, H. M. & Radcliffe, L. 1912. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 41 (1877): 681, fig. 3; pl. 53.
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Paratype for Deania profundorum
Catalog Number: USNM 99495
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Depth (m): 750 to 750
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Smith, H. M. & Radcliffe, L. 1912. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 41 (1877): 681, fig. 3; pl. 53.
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Paratype for Deania profundorum
Catalog Number: USNM 99491
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Depth (m): 1785 to 1785
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Smith, H. M. & Radcliffe, L. 1912. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 41 (1877): 681, fig. 3; pl. 53.
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Paratype for Deania profundorum
Catalog Number: USNM 99496
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Depth (m): 1344 to 1344
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Smith, H. M. & Radcliffe, L. 1912. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 41 (1877): 681, fig. 3; pl. 53.
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Paratype for Deania profundorum
Catalog Number: USNM 99497
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Philippines: N. Mindanao
Depth (m): 750 to 750
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Smith, H. M. & Radcliffe, L. 1912. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 41 (1877): 681, fig. 3; pl. 53.
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Holotype for Deania profundorum
Catalog Number: USNM 159603
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1958
Locality: North Carolina, United States, Atlantic
Vessel: Delaware
  • Holotype: Springer, S. 1959. Copeia. 1959 (1): 31, fig. 1.
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The following information is taken from Compagno (in prep.) unless cited otherwise.

A deepwater species of continental and insular slopes found on or near the bottom at depths from 275?1,785 m. In the Northwest Atlantic it occurs at 412?617 m depth; in the Azores from 250?1,100 m, mostly commonly between 700 and 800 m (M.R. Pinho pers. comm. 2006); off the Canary Islands it has been caught at 600?1,500 m; off southern Africa it occurs at 500?608 m; and off the Philippines it is known at 717?1,786 m. It has been trawled on mud and coral bottoms in the Philippines. Observations suggest they may be more common in the deeper end of their bathymetric range (D. Ebert pers. obs. 2007).

Size at birth is over 31 cm. Adult males are 43?67 cm. Females are immature at 60?77 cm, adolescent at 65?79 cm and adult at 62?80 cm. Maximum total length (TL) is reported at about 104 cm (M.R. Pinho pers. comm. 2006), but most known individuals are smaller.

The species sometimes occurs in huge aggregations or schools. Reproduction is ovoviviparous. The probable litter size is five to seven judging from fertilized eggs in the uteri of females (Compagno et al. 1989). The species feeds on small benthic and midwater bony fishes, including lanternfish, as well as squids and crustaceans. Off the West Coast of South Africa squids (Ommastrephidae, Abraliopsis species, and unidentified cephalopods) and lanternfish (particularly Diaphus, Myctophidae) are important prey items (Ebert et al. 1992).

Feeds on small bottom and midwater fish, squid and crustaceans (Ebert et al. 1992).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 205 - 1800 m (Ref. 55584)
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Depth range based on 57 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 22 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 293 - 1785
  Temperature range (°C): 4.951 - 9.710
  Nitrate (umol/L): 18.732 - 40.998
  Salinity (PPS): 34.355 - 35.094
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.607 - 4.886
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.411 - 2.692
  Silicate (umol/l): 11.458 - 25.522

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 293 - 1785

Temperature range (°C): 4.951 - 9.710

Nitrate (umol/L): 18.732 - 40.998

Salinity (PPS): 34.355 - 35.094

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.607 - 4.886

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.411 - 2.692

Silicate (umol/l): 11.458 - 25.522
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 205 - 1790m.
From 205 to 1790 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). 5 to 7 young in a litter (Ref. 5578). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Deania profundorum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Deania profundorum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Ebert, D.A., McCormack, C. & Samiengo, B.

Reviewer/s
Cavanagh, R.D., Huepel, M., Simpfendorfer, C., Valenti, S.V. & Burgess, G. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
The Arrowhead Dogfish (Deania profundora) is a moderate sized (to 104 cm but mostly around 80 cm) dogfish found on or near the bottom at depths of 275?1,785 m on the upper continental and insular slopes. It is often found in huge aggregations, possibly increasing the threat of overfishing where fisheries occur. There is little information on the catch of this species but deepwater fisheries operate over much of its range (e.g., Canary Islands, the Azores, off Namibia and in the Gulf of Mexico). This species is taken on longlines off the Canary Islands and utilized for liver oil and meat. It may also be taken by an experimental deepsea tanglenet fishery off Namibia, where identification of the Deania species being caught is uncertain. Observations suggest they may be more common in the deeper end of their bathymetric range. There are no known deepwater fisheries currently operating off South Africa and the Philippines and these areas may provide a refuge from fishing pressure. Given this species? relatively wide geographic and bathymetric range and the absence of data to suggest significant declines, this species is assessed as Least Concern. Expanding fisheries should be monitored as they move into deeper water.
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Population

Population
Very little information is available on population throughout this species? range.

This species was recorded in annual deepwater scientific research cruises conducted off Namibia from 2004?2006 (at 500?2,000 m depth), down to 1,000 m (H. Holtzhausen pers. comm. 2007). It appears to be scarce off Namibia, with a small biomass of about 160 tons in the areas surveyed (H. Holtzhausen pers. comm. 2007).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is caught on longlines off the Canary Islands and utilized for liver oil and meat (Compagno in prep.). It is probably caught as bycatch by deepwater fisheries elsewhere in its range.

In the Azores, there is no information from the fishery but only a small number of individuals are caught as bycatch, because the core of the species' distribution is outside of the area where the local fleet usually operates (M.R. Pinho pers. comm. 2006). Some deepwater fishing has been conducted for deepwater sharks off Senegal. Off Kayar and Dakar, Senegal, an artisanal fishery targets Centrophorus species for their liver oil (Direction des Pêches Maritimes du Sénégal 2007). The fishery uses gillnets to target deepwater sharks for part of the year. Deania profundora is not reported in the catch and may occur at greater depths than currently fished off western Africa. Fisheries are beginning to operate in deeper waters due to declines in catches of more coastal species (L. Mbaye pers. comm. 2007).

Off Namibia, a fairly small amount of demersal sharks are caught as bycatch by deep-water trawl fisheries and recorded as ?sharks? or ?other? (NATMIRC 2003). These fisheries target hake from 400 to 600 m off Central Namibia (around 100 vessels), monkfish at 600 m off central Namibia (around 20 vessels) and orange roughy from 600 to 1,000 m off northern Namibia (three vessels) (NATMIRC 2003). Two vessels were also granted two-year exploratory rights to target deep-water shark species along the entire coast of Namibia using tanglenets (NATMIRC 2003). Birdbeaked dogfish were being fished in this experimental deepsea fishery, but the identification of what Deania species was being caught is uncertain (D. Ebert pers. comm. 2007). The main species of deepwater shark taken by Namibian fisheries are Centrophorus squamosus, Centroscymnus coelolepis, Deania quadrispinosum, Squalus mitsukurii and Galeorhinus galeus (NATMIRC 2003). The experimental fishery ended in January 2006.

In the Gulf of Mexico, there are some fisheries presently operating in deeper water. For example, Royal Red shrimp trawlers, golden crab traps (180?550 m), bottom longline for tilefish (around 150?350 m), deep drop hook and line boats in the Straits and the Gulf. Almost all the bottom longline boats that target deepwater grouper in the Gulf, and sharks in the Straits and in the Gulf, are setting in depths greater than around 150 m. These bottom long liners catch deep water skates and sharks sporadically. There is also a bottom trawler that fishes for butterfish in deep water and catches deep water skates and sharks fairly regularly (G. Davenport pers. comm. 2006). It is unknown whether this species is taken by any of these fisheries.

There are currently no deepwater fisheries operating within the species? range off South Africa or the Philippines; however, given the expanding trend in deepwater fisheries worldwide, the situation should be carefully monitored to ensure that the species is not adversely affected.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Like many deeper water species more information on biology, ecology and importance in fisheries are required to further assess status and any future conservation needs. Where taken, catches require monitoring, particularly as deepwater fisheries expand worldwide.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
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Wikipedia

Arrowhead dogfish

The arrowhead dogfish, Deania profundorum, is a small little known deepwater dogfish of the family Centrophoridae.

Contents

Physical characteristics

Arrowhead dogfish have extremely long angular snouts, no anal fin, small first dorsal and long rear dorsal spines, and pitchfork shaped dermal denticles. The first dorsal fin is short and placed high on the back. This is the smallest of the Deania genus with a maximum length of only 76 cm.

Distribution

It is found in the Pacific Ocean around the Philippines, in the Western Atlantic Ocean off of the Carolinas, in the Eastern Atlantic all along Africa's west coast, and in the Indian Ocean off South Africa.

Habits and habitat

This shark is a little-known deepwater species that lives at depths of between 300 and 1,785 m. It is ovoviviparous with 5 to 7 pups per litter. It eats bony fish, squid, and crustaceans.

References

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