Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: snapper (English), pargo (Espanol)
 
Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters, 1869)


Yellow snapper,     Amarillo snapper



Body moderately deep, snout pointed; front and rear nostrils simple holes; mouth relatively large and protractile; teeth conical to caniniform, those at front of jaws generally enlarged and fang-like; tooth patch at central roof of mouth anchor shaped, front curved or pointed; sides of roof of mouth with 1 tooth patch; 16-17 gill rakers; preopercle serrated, lower margin notched; dorsal rays X, 14; dorsal continuous; anal rays III, 8; soft dorsal and anal with angular ends; tail edge ~ straight; bases of soft dorsal and anal fins scaly; scale rows on upper back parallel to lateral line .

Rosy red anteriorly becoming bright yellow to orange over most of body; fins mainly yellow or orange; a blue horizontal streak below eye.


Size: maximum size to about 66 cm.

Habitat: occurs over rocky bottoms, usually found close to shelter; juveniles common in estuaries; a nocturnal predator of fishes, shrimps, crabs, and molluscs.



Depth: 3-94 m.



Southern California to the Gulf of California to Peru, including all the oceanic islands except Clipperton.
   
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Biology

Found in inshore reef areas over hard bottoms until at least 60 m depth (Ref. 9313). Tolerant to freshwaters (Ref. 36880). Form aggregations during daylight and shelter as solitary fish in caverns. Feed on fishes, shrimps, crabs and mollusks. Marketed fresh or frozen (Ref. 9313).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern California, USA and the Gulf of California to Peru, including Cocos, Malpelo, Galapagos and Revillagigedo Islands.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: southern California to Peru, rare north of Baja California, Mexico; also at the Cocos and Galapagos islands.
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Eastern Pacific: southern California, U.S.A. to Peru.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 3 (S) - 94 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
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Size

Length max (cm): 66.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 660 mm TL
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Max. size

71.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 13.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Forehead slopes steeply; snout somewhat pointed. Preopercular notch and knob weak. Scale rows on back parallel with lateral line. Rosy red anteriorly, becoming bright orange to yellow over most of the body; the fins are mainly yellow or orange; the inside of the mouth is white; a bluish horizontal streak runs below the eye.
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Type Information

Type for Serranus lamprurus
Catalog Number: USNM 29651
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Gilbert
Locality: Panama, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This reef-associated species is found in inshore reef areas over hard substrate to depths of at least 60m. It is tolerant of freshwater (Bussing, 1998), and juveniles are common in estuaries. For example, only small individuals were captured in mangrove areas in the Gulf of Montijo, which suggests that this area is mostly used for breeding and reproduction (Vega, 2004).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 3 - 60 m (Ref. 9313)
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Depth range based on 147 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 5 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.21 - 15
  Temperature range (°C): 21.311 - 27.666
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 1.599
  Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.023
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.671 - 5.074
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.543
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 4.062

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.21 - 15

Temperature range (°C): 21.311 - 27.666

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 1.599

Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 35.023

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.671 - 5.074

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.543

Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 4.062
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 3 - 60m.
From 3 to 60 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish, Freshwater

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Corals, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Estuary, Freshwater

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Found in inshore reef areas over hard bottoms until at least 60 m depth (Ref. 9313). Tolerant to freshwaters (Ref. 36880). Form aggregations during daylight and shelter as solitary fish in caverns. Feeds on fish, shrimps, crabs and mollusks during the day as well as during the night (Ref. 55). Carnivore (Ref. 57615).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lutjanus argentiventris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GGAATAGTAGGCACGGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAGCTAAGCCAACCAGGAGCCCTTCTTGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATCATGATTGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTGATCCCATTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCCGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATGAATAATATGAGCTTTTGACTCCTTCCCCCATCCTTCCTACTACTACTCGCCTCCTCTGGAGTAGAAGCCGGTGCCGGAACAGGATGAACAGTTTACCCTCCCTTAGCAGGAAACCTAGCACACGCAGGAGCGTCTGTTGACCTA---ACCATTTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCGGGTGTTTCTTCAATTCTAGGGGCCATCAACTTTATTACAACGATCATCAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCACAATATCAAACACCACTATTCGTTTGGGCCGTCCTAATCACTGCTGTTCTACTTCTTCTATCCCTTCCTGTACTAGCTGCC---GGAATTACAATGCTCCTCACAGATCGAAATCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCAGCCGGAGGAGGAGAACCAATCCTCTATCAACAACTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lutjanus argentiventris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 22
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Bessudo, S., Acero, A., Rojas, P. & Cotto, A.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is common in at least parts of its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern. However, since juveniles appear to be dependent on heavily impacted mangroves and estuaries as nursery areas and it is heavily fished, this species should be carefully monitored.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is common in many parts of its range.

The mean abundance of the species in Galapagos Island was 0.44 individuals / 500 m2 (Edgar et al. 2004). In Gorgona Island, Colombia, the annual density was 0.693 (no./ 10 m2), and the frequency of observation was 36.4% (Zapata and Morales, 1997).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The loss of mangroves throughout its range from coastal development may also negatively impact the availability and quality of nursery areas for juveniles of this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
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