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Overview

Brief Summary

Sea snails grow up to a maximum of 18 centimeters and no older than 2 years. Just like the lumpsucker, they have a suction cup to attach themselves to solid objects. This is why they prefer to live in areas with lots of stones or other sturdy objects, such as mussel banks. They eat shrimp, gammarids and small fish, such as gobies. Sea snails spawn in the winter in shallow water. After depositing the eggs, the older animals die. This species is found often in the delta and Wadden Sea area, however is rarely seen in other Dutch waters.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 Liparis liparis is a small, clinging fish related to the lumpsucker (Cyclopteridae). They have tad-pole shaped bodies. The head is relatively large and broad compared to the elongated and tapering body. Underneath there is a rounded sucker derived from the pelvic fins. They have a single, long dorsal fin and a long anal fin. The skin of liparids is scaleless and their skin is loose, soft and slimy. The colour is a poor guide to identity, since it is variable with the habitat. The colour varies from brown to yellow, red or green.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Range Description

Liparis liparis is distributed through the northeast Atlantic, off the Baltic countries (Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, Denmark), Norway, the British Isles, Ireland, Iceland, Portugal, and France (D. Stein pers. comm. 2008).
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Arctic Ocean, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Eastern North Atlantic: Iceland and Norway south to Portugal.
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Southern Norway north to Barents Sea including Novaya Zemlya, Spitsbergen and Bear I., also Iceland.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Perlmutter, A., 1961; Stein, D. L. and K. W. Able, 1986; Whitehead, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 150 mm ---
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to 15 cm TL (male/unsexed).
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Perlmutter, A., 1961; Stein, D. L. and K. W. Able, 1986; Whitehead, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Liparis liparis is a small, benthic, inshore species with a short lifespan of 1 year in the most southerly reaches of its range, and to 2 or 3 years in more northerly waters. A mature adult grows to 10–15 cm. Spawning takes place in the spring. This species feeds primarily on crustaceans, and occasionally fishes and polychaetes. This species is found in the subtidal zone to the epipelagic zone, and is reported to have a broad depth range, from just beneath the surface down to 300 m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 9.570 - 9.570
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.996 - 2.996
  Salinity (PPS): 34.368 - 34.368
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.497 - 6.497
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.347 - 0.347
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.216 - 2.216
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 The sea snali is usually found in shallow water, but can extend down to 150 m. It is sometimes found in muddy and sandy areas but lives mainly amongst rocks.
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Demersal; marine; depth to 300 m.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Perlmutter, A., 1961; Stein, D. L. and K. W. Able, 1986; Whitehead, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Primarily crustaceans, occasionally fishes and polychaetes.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Perlmutter, A., 1961; Stein, D. L. and K. W. Able, 1986; Whitehead, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Spawn from December to March in the southern portion of their range and in spring in the northern portion; larvae are pelagic.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Perlmutter, A., 1961; Stein, D. L. and K. W. Able, 1986; Whitehead, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Liparis liparis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Stein, D.L.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.

Justification
Liparis liparis has been assessed as Least Concern. This species has a wide distribution, a broad depth range, and a lack of threats impacting it across its full range. It is therefore unlikely to be experiencing significant population declines and can not be considered threatened.
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for Liparis liparis.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The near-shore habitat of Liparis liparis has been impacted by pollution discharges, such as sewage and industrial waste, over much of the last century or more. However, these impacts are thought to be localised and not impacting the species across the full extent of its range.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Liparis liparis. Further research is needed to determine the current extent and severity of threats to this species.
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Wikipedia

Common seasnail

The common seasnail (Liparis liparis) is a small marine fish of the seasnail family (Liparidae) in the order Scorpaeniformes, the scorpionfishes and flatheads. It is found in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean where it lives on the seabed.

Description[edit]

The common seasnail is an unusual-looking fish with a large head and front part of the body and a laterally compressed posterior part of the body and large fringing fins. Its length is generally between 8 and 14 cm (3.1 and 5.5 in). The bony head has two pairs of nostrils on the snout. The pectoral fins are very large and unite beneath the body. The pelvic fins take the form of a large sucking disc located between the pectorals. The dorsal fin has 27 to 36 soft rays and both it and the anal fins overlap the caudal fin. The skin is slimy and lacks scales.[1][2][3]

Distribution[edit]

The common seasnail is native to the northeastern Atlantic Ocean as far east as the Barents Sea, Novaya Zemlya, Spitsbergen and Bear Island and as far south as the British Isles. It is also present in the Baltic Sea and North Sea and the waters around Iceland and the east coast of Greenland. Its maximum depth range is around 300 m (984 ft) and it lives near the seabed.[1]

Biology[edit]

The common seasnail feeds on small crustaceans, such as shrimps, crabs and amphipods, and also polychaete worms and fish. It breeds in the winter in the southern part of its range and in spring in the northern part. The eggs are laid on the seabed and the larvae are pelagic, forming part of the plankton.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Sea snail (Liparis liparis)". Fishes of the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  2. ^ "Liparis liparis liparis (Linnaeus, 1766)". FishBase. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  3. ^ "Sea snail: Liparis liparis (L.)". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
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