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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occur over muddy bottoms of the continental shelf (Ref. 4340), from estuaries to coastal beaches and to relatively deep waters (less than 122 m) (Ref. 57343). Forms loosely-associated schools (Ref. 57343). Feeds on small crustaceans, fishes and other benthic organisms (Ref. 30573). Fish of 12 cm can be caught in large numbers (Ref. 9685).
  • Motomura, H. 2004 Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of polynemid species known to date. FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. Rome: FAO. 3:117 p. (Ref. 57343)
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Distribution

Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines, Society Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Port Stephens (New South Wales), New Caledonia and Tonga.
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Indo-Pacific: East Africa to French Polynesia, north to Japan, south to Australia. Has not been collected from the Red Sea or Persian Gulf (Ref. 57343).
  • Feltes, R.M. 2001 Polynemidae. Threadfins. p. 3090-3116. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9685)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines, Society Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Port Stephens (New South Wales), New Caledonia and Tonga.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 11 - 12
  • Smith, M.M. 1986 Polynemidae. p. 720-721. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5492)
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Size

Maximum size: 450 mm TL
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Max. size

45.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 57343)); max. published weight: 1,650 g (Ref. 40637)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
  • Motomura, H. 2004 Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of polynemid species known to date. FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. Rome: FAO. 3:117 p. (Ref. 57343)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs over muddy bottoms of the continental shelf (Ref. 4340). Attains at least 45 cm SL (Ref. 9685). Fish of 12 cm can be caught in large numbers (Ref. 9685).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Golden, dusky olive brown above, scale rows each with a dark line; fins dusky (Ref. 5492). Body with 7 or 8 prominent dark stripes along the longitudinal scale rows above lateral line and 7-9 faint stripes below. Pectoral fin rays unbranched; 4th or 5th pectoral filament longest, 22-40% of SL. Posterior margin of maxilla reaching to (or slightly extending beyond) level of posterior margin of adipose eyelid. Lower tip of 7th proximal pterygiophore of 1st dorsal fin directed backwards. Lateral squamation on caudal fin unbranched (Ref. 40970).
  • Smith, M.M. 1986 Polynemidae. p. 720-721. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5492)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; brackish; marine; depth range ? - 122 m (Ref. 57343)
  • Motomura, H. 2004 Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of polynemid species known to date. FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. Rome: FAO. 3:117 p. (Ref. 57343)
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Depth range based on 12 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 277
  Temperature range (°C): 26.151 - 27.540
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.276 - 3.114
  Salinity (PPS): 35.924 - 36.032
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.462 - 4.641
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.228 - 0.546
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.386 - 4.277

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 277

Temperature range (°C): 26.151 - 27.540

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.276 - 3.114

Salinity (PPS): 35.924 - 36.032

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.462 - 4.641

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.228 - 0.546

Silicate (umol/l): 1.386 - 4.277
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Occurs over muddy bottoms of the continental shelf (Ref. 4340), and coastal waters (Ref. 9137). Feeds on small crustaceans, fishes and other benthic organisms (Ref. 30573).
  • Daget, J. and J.C. Njock 1986 Polynemidae. p. 352-354. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4340)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Polydactylus plebeius

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCTTTATTTAATCTTCGGGGCCTGAGCCGGAATGGTGGGGACAGCCCTCAGCCTACTAATCCGTGCCGAGCTCAGCCAACCTGGCGCACTCCTAGGAGACGACCAGATTTATAATGTTATCGTCACCGCACATGCTTTTGTGATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATCGGAGGCTTCGGGAATTGACTTGTACCTCTAATAATTGGCGCCCCCGACATGGCCTTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCCCCCTCTTTCCTACTCCTCCTGGCATCATCAGGGGTAGAGGCCGGAGCAGGAACCGGCTGGACCGTCTACCCACCTTTAGCAGGCAACCTCGCCCACGCAGGAGCATCCGTTGACTTAACCATCTTCTCCCTTCACCTGGCAGGGGTGTCCTCAATTCTTGGGGCCATCAACTTTATTACAACAATTTTTAACATAAAACCAGCCTCTGCCTCAATATACCAACTGCCCCTATTCGTCTGAGCCGTCCTAGTCACAGCTGTACTGCTCCTCTTATCCCTCCCTGTTCTAGCTGCTGGAATTACCATGCTACTAACGGACCGAAACCTAAACACTGCCTTCTTTGACCCTGCGGGCGGAGGCGATCCTGTCCTCTACCAACACCTG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Polydactylus plebeius

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Polydactylus plebius

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
  • Liao, C.-I., H.-M. Su and E.Y. Chang 2001 Techniques in finfish larviculture in Taiwan. Aquaculture 200(2001):1-31. (Ref. 40297)
  • Motomura, H. 2004 Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of polynemid species known to date. FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. Rome: FAO. 3:117 p. (Ref. 57343)
  • van der Elst, R. 1993 A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa. (3rd Ed.). Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 398 p. (Ref. 12484)
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