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BiologyFound in shallow coastal waters, including bays and estuaries (Ref. 36661); can tolerate salinity as low as 3 parts per thousand (Ref. 9760). Usually in schools (Ref. 36661). Feeds on amphipods, copepods, isopods, crab and barnacle larvae, polychaetes, gastropods, chironomid midges, hymenopterans, ants, foraminiferans, and plant matter (Ref. 9760). Opportunistic feeder (Ref. 9760). Probably used as bait and for fishmeal (Ref. 9760).