Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: sea-catfish (English), congo (Espanol)
 
Cathorops tuyra (Meek & Hildebrand, 1923)


Besudo sea-catfish



Body moderately elongate; head small; snout long, pointed; top of head rough on rear half, covered with thin skin; narrow central groove in top of head from snout to a little behind eye, sometimes not reaching onto snout; bone projecting back from head shield triangular, with wide base, longer than wide, with a central keel;  3 pairs of barbells (on chin and both jaws); mouth small; lips fleshy, often thick; lower jaw bones very wide, with large molar teeth at rear; fine teeth at front of top jaw in two articulated patches; one pair of well separated, oblique, elongated patches of large molariform teeth on roof of mouth; gill opening restricted to sides by adhesion of gill membranes to breast; gill rakers 7 + 13-15; rakers on posterior surface of all arches; dorsal rays I,7; anal rays 19-20; pectoral rays I, 10-11.

Grey on back and sides, white below; fins dusky bluish grey.

Maximum size to 30 cm.

Inhabits brackish and fresh water.

Depth: 0-20 m.



Costa Rica to Peru.
   
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Biology

Found in marine, brackish and fresh waters (Ref. 9271). Penetrates lower reaches of rivers (Ref. 9271). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9271).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from from Costa Rica to southern Peru. However, the distribution is not well known, and the presence of this species in Colombia and Ecuador is doubtful.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, Panamic province endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Pacific drainage rivers and estuaries from Panama to Peru: Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Peru.
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Central and South America: Pacific drainage rivers and estuaries from Panama to Peru.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 20 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 30.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 290 mm TL
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Max. size

29.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9271))
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Type Information

Type for Arius tuyra Meek & Hildebrand
Catalog Number: USNM 79413
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Photograph; Radiograph
Collector(s): S. Meek & S. Hildebrand
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: Rio Tuyra At Mouth of Yape, Darien, Panama, Darien Province, Panama, North America
  • Type: Meek, S. E. & Hildebrand, S. F. 1923. Field Museum of Natural History Publication. Zoological Series. 15: 128, 5.
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Paratype for Arius tuyra Meek & Hildebrand
Catalog Number: USNM 79414
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Meek & S. Hildebrand
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: Rio Tuyra, Boca De Cupe, Darien, Panama, Darien Province, Panama, North America
  • Paratype: Meek, S. E. & Hildebrand, S. F. 1923. Field Museum of Natural History Publication. Zoological Series. 15: 128, 5.
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Paratype for Arius tuyra Meek & Hildebrand
Catalog Number: USNM 79412
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Meek & S. Hildebrand
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: Rio Tuyra, Marrigante, Darien, Panama, Darien Province, Panama, Pacific
  • Paratype: Meek, S. E. & Hildebrand, S. F. 1923. Field Museum of Natural History Publication. Zoological Series. 15: 128, 5.
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Paratype for Arius tuyra Meek & Hildebrand
Catalog Number: USNM 79411
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Meek & S. Hildebrand
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: Rio Tuyra, Marrigante, Darien, Panama, Darien Province, Panama, Pacific
  • Paratype: Meek, S. E. & Hildebrand, S. F. 1923. Field Museum of Natural History Publication. Zoological Series. 15: 128, 5.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This demersal species is found in coastal, brackish and freshwater to depths of 20 m. It moves up into freshwater as adults (Cooke and Tapia 1994).

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.8 - 18

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.8 - 18
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Brackish, Freshwater, Non Marine

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel, Freshwater

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Brooded, No pelagic larva, No pelagic phase
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Cooke, R., Acero, A., Betancur, R., Rojas, P. & Cotto, A.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
The distribution of this species in the Eastern Pacific is uncertain. It is reported to occur from Costa Rica to Peru, but both the northern and southern extent is doubtful. This estuarine and freshwater species is under serious threat from coastal development and habitat destruction throughout its range, and from indiscriminate fishing with gill nets. However, more research is needed on this species' distribution, population, and habitat status. It is listed as Data Deficient.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
No population information is available for this species. It is considered common in Panama.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is caught incidentally in small commercial fisheries, and is marketed fresh. This species is most common in shallow coastal and estuarine waters, and moves upstream as adults. Both of these habitats are under serious threat from coastal and riparian development and pollution. Adults are also under serious threat from illegal gill netting in rivers.
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Data deficient (DD)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. More research is needed on this species' distribution, population status, habitat requirements and status, and threats.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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