Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Petrocephalus grandoculis is a medium–sized species within the genus Petrocephalus (maximum standard length observed = 97.8 mm). Body ovoid, body 2.5-3.1 longer than high (syntypes = 3.0–3.1) and laterally compressed. Head length 3.8–4.2 times in standard length (syntypes = 3.9–4.1). Eye quite large (2.8 ≤ head length/eye diameter ≤ 3.1, syntypes = 3.1–3.2). Snout short and round. Mouth very small (5.2 ≤ head length/head width ≤ 6.1, syntypes = 5.7–6.1), sub–terminal, opening under the anterior half of the eye. Teeth small and bicuspid, only 8–11 (syntypes = 10–11) in a single row in the upper jaw, 18–22 (syntypes = 19–20) in a single row in the lower jaw. Dorsal and anal fins originate in the posterior half of the body [standard length/pre–dorsal distance = 1.6 and standard length /pre–anal distance = 1.7]. Pre–dorsal distance slightly greater than pre–anal distance. Dorsal fin with 25–26 branched rays (syntypes = 24–26). Anal fin with 30–33 branched rays (syntypes = 30–31). Scales cover the body, except for the head. Lateral line visible and complete with 37–39 (syntypes = 38) pored scales along its length. Caudal peduncle relatively thin (2.2 ≤ caudal peduncle length/caudal peduncle diameter ≤ 3.0, syntypes = 3.0). Twelve scales around the caudal peduncle. Skin on head thick, becoming opaque with formalin fixation. The numerous Knollenorgan electroreceptors on the head are organized into two visible rosettes (Augenrosette and Nackenrosette). The third rosette, the Kehlrosette, is present but this structure is not as discernable as it is in other species (e.g., P. binotatus).

Body mostly white–silver. Dorsum slightly darker than the rest of the body. Pigmentation pattern consists of two melanin markings: (1) a distinct, but weak, round black mark below the anterior base of the dorsal fin (first to fifth rays); (2) a crescent–shaped mark at the base of the caudal fin, which does not extend onto the rayed portions of the upper and lower caudal fin lobes. No black mark is present at the base of pectoral fin. The fins themselves are translucent.

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Distribution

Range Description

Petrocephalus grandoculis is known from Pool Malebo (Stanley Pool) and adjacent rapids, and from the Lower and Central Congo River basin. It is not known from the Kwango, Lukénie and Kasai systems.
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Africa: Congo River basin (Ref. 85331).
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Endemic to the central Congo basin. The type locality is situated on the Lower Congo River at Kinshasa/Brazzaville. Specimens known from several localities.

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Central Africa.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

9.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 42480))
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To 97.8 mm SL

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Diagnostic Description

Petrocephalus grandoculis is distinguished from all other Petrocephalus species in Central Africa by the following combination of characteristics: very small mouth (mouth width 5,2-6,1 times in head length), 8-11 teeth in the upper jaw, lower jaw with 18-22 teeth, eye large (eye diameter 2,8-3,2 times in head length), snout short, dorsal fin with 24-26 branched rays, anal fin with 30-33 branched rays (Ref. 85331). Pigmentation pattern consists of two melanin markings (black patches): (1) a distinct, although generally weak, round black mark on each side of the body below the anterior base of the dorsal fin (first to fifth rays); and (2) a crescent-like mark at the base of the caudal fin on each side, not extending onto the rayed portions of the upper and lower caudal fin lobes (Ref. 85331).
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Petrocephalus grandoculis is distinguished from all other Petrocephalus species in Central Africa by the following combination of characteristics. Very small mouth (5.2 ≤ head length /head width ≤ 6.1). Eight to 11 teeth in the lower jaw. Upper jaw with 18–22 teeth. Eye large (2.8 ≤ head length/eye diameter ≤ 3.2). Snout short. Dorsal fin with 24–26 branched rays. Anal fin with 30–33 branched rays. Pigmentation pattern consists of two melanin markings (black patches): (1) a distinct, although generally weak, round black mark on each side of the body below the anterior base of the dorsal fin (first to fifth rays); (2) a crescent–like mark at the base of the caudal fin on each side, not extending onto the rayed portions of the upper and lower caudal fin lobes. EOD of normal polarity.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a demersal species.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Electric Organ Discharge

EODs have only been recorded from one individual of Petrocephalus grandoculis, which was collected in Odzala National Park. The EOD duration for this individual (0.380 msec, based on 1.5% deviations from baseline) and the general appearance of the waveform are typical for Petrocephalus.

Electrocyte anatomy is unknown, although it is expected to be type "NPp" as deduced from the EOD waveform.

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Phylogenetic Relationships

Petrocephalus grandoculis belongs to a large clade of Central Africa endemic species of Petrocephalus.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Petrocephalus grandoculis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Moelants, T.

Reviewer/s
Brummett, R., Mbe Tawe, A.N., Dening Touokong, C., Reid, G.M., Snoeks, J. Staissny, M., Moelants, T., Mamonekene, V., Ndodet, B., Ifuta, S.N.B., Chilala, A., Monsembula, R., Ibala Zamba, A., Opoye Itoua, O., Pouomogne, V., Darwall, W. & Smith, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species is widespread or without major threats throughout the Central Africa assessment region and is assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
No information available.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
None known.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
None known.
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