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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Acanthopagrus calamara :

RMNH D419-420 , 2 of 4 syntypes of Chrysophrys calamara Valenciennes ZBK , dry, 170-211 mm SL, Java ; SMF 3021 , 1 of 4 syntypes , formerly RMNH ), 146 mm SL, Java .

  • Yukio Iwatsuki, Kent E. Carpenter (2006): Acanthopagrus taiwanensis, a new sparid fish (Perciformes), with comparisons to Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål, 1775) and other nominal species of Acanthopagrus. Zootaxa 1202, 1-19: 4-4, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E4C0CD38-51A6-4B95-B54E-056ECE859536
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Acanthopagrus berda :

BPBM 19055 , 194 mm SL, Sri Lanka ; MNHN 5261 , 1 of 4 syntypes of Chrysophrys calamara Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes ZBK , 151 mm SL, Malabar , India ; MUFS 16744-16745 , 2 (180-211 mm SL), Mangalore Central Market , Karnataka , India ; MUFS 16758 , 154 mm SL, Kundapura Fish Market , Karnataka , India : MUFS 19059 , 157 mm SL, Shankarpur Landing Centre, Midnapore, Ganges estuary , India ; MUFS 19734 , 164 mm SL, Trivandrum , Karalla , India ; MUFS 22938 , 182.5 mm SL, outside of Tung-kang Bay, Tung-kang , Taiwan ; RMNH 15683 , 2 (142-241 mm SL), Red Sea ; SAIAB 10704 , 203 mm SL, Mouth of Umvoti River , South Africa ; SAIAB 11807 , 288 mm SL, East London , Eastern Cape , South Africa ; SAIAB 49876 , 49879, 2 (138-162 mm SL), Inhaca Island , Mozambique ; SAIAB 55649 , 142 mm SL, offshore , Mozambique ; SAIAB 56461 , 21 (33-123 mm SL), Inhaca Island mangrove-sacco , Mozambique ; SAIAB 15683 , 2 (142-241 mm SL), Red Sea ; SMF 1757 , 2 (130-129 mm SL), Red Sea . SMF 28175 , 60 mm SL, Hiedub south of Suakin , Sudan , Red Sea ; ZRC 38094 , 249 mm SL, Kisap River, Langkawi Island , Malaysia ; ZMUC-P 50555 , holotype of Sparus berda Forrskal ZBK , left dried skin, ca. 213 mm SL (estimated from its head length and the head length-standard length relationship given in Table 1), Luhaiya , Yemen , Red Sea .

  • Yukio Iwatsuki, Kent E. Carpenter (2006): Acanthopagrus taiwanensis, a new sparid fish (Perciformes), with comparisons to Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål, 1775) and other nominal species of Acanthopagrus. Zootaxa 1202, 1-19: 3-3, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E4C0CD38-51A6-4B95-B54E-056ECE859536
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“ Chrysophrys berda calamara ZBK ” of Day (1875):

ZSI F1785 , holotype , 187 mm SL, Sind , Pakistan .

  • Yukio Iwatsuki, Kent E. Carpenter (2006): Acanthopagrus taiwanensis, a new sparid fish (Perciformes), with comparisons to Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål, 1775) and other nominal species of Acanthopagrus. Zootaxa 1202, 1-19: 4-4, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E4C0CD38-51A6-4B95-B54E-056ECE859536
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Biology

Feeds on invertebrates, including worms, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms (Ref. 5213), and small fish (Ref. 3670). Protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). The flesh is excellent. Sold fresh in markets.
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Distribution

Western Indian Ocean, South Africa, Mozambique, the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, India, Phuket (Andaman Sea, specimen lost), and Malaysia (Penang Island and Langkawi Island, near Singapore). Western Pacific specimens recorded as A. berda refer to Acanthopagrus pacificus (Ref. 86288).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and South Africa east to Philippines and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to Northern Territory (Australia) and Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11 - 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 12; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8 - 9
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Size

Maximum size: 900 mm TL
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Max. size

90.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3198)); max. published weight: 3,200 g (Ref. 3670)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Found on muddy and sandy bottoms of coastal waters and estuaries. Enters freshwater. Juveniles inhabit protected bays. Feeds on invertebrates, including worms, molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (Ref. 5213), and small fish (Ref. 3670). The flesh is excellent. Sold fresh in markets. This is a well-known angling fish in South Africa.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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This species is distinguished from all its congeners by the following characters: scale rows between fifth dorsal-fin spine base and lateral line 3.5; front edge of dorsal scaly area on head slightly convex, with small scales (fewer than 20) anteriorly; pored lateral-line scales 42-44; second anal-fin spine (2AS) longer than third anal-fin spine (3AS), 2AS/3AS ratio 1.23-1.50 (mean 1.36); strongly curved concavity on ventral edge of first two infraorbitals above rear end of maxilla, particularly obvious in specimens more than 13 cm SL; scales on preopercle flange absent; anal-fin membrane dark; molariform teeth strongly developed along both jaws, teeth rows strongly curved laterally at rear of lower jaw (Ref. 83673).
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Ecology

Habitat

Zambezi River Demersal Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of demersal species in the Zambezi River system of southern Africa. Demersal river fish are found at the river bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton

Nutrient levels in the Zambezi River are relatively low, especially in the upper Zambezi; in that reach, above Victoria Falls, most of the catchment drains Kalahari sands, whose nutrient levels are inherently low due to their aeolian formation; moreover, agricultural fertilizer addition throughout the Zambezi watershed is low, due to the shortage of capital available to farmers of this region.

Nitrate levels (as nitrogen) in the upper Zambezi are typically in the range of .01 to .03 milligrams per liter. Correspondingly electrical conductivity of the upper Zambezi is on the order of 75 micro-S per centimeter, due to the paucity of ion content. From the Luangwa River downstream nitrate levels elevate to .10 to .18 milligrams per liter, and electrical conductivity rises to a range of two to four times the upper Zambezi levels. Not surprisingly, pH, calcium ion concentration, bicarbonate and electrical conductivity are all higher in portions of the catchment where limestone soils predominate compared to granite.

There are a total of 190 fish species present in the Zambezi River, including eel and shark taxa. The largest native demersal species present are the 117 centimeter (cm) long tiger fish (Hydrocynus vittatus), the 175 cm African mottled eel (Anguilla bengalensis labiata), the 120 cm Indonesian shortfin eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor), the 200 cm Giant mottled eel (Anguilla marmorata), the 150 cm African longfin eel (Anguilla mossambica), the 183 cm Sampa (Heterobranchus longifilis), the 150 cm Cornish jack (Mormyrops anguilloides) and the 700 cm largetooth sawfish (Pristis microdon).

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Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 10 - 50 m
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Depth range based on 10 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 24.5
  Temperature range (°C): 25.716 - 25.716
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.447 - 3.447
  Salinity (PPS): 36.410 - 36.410
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.264 - 4.264
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.678 - 0.678
  Silicate (umol/l): 6.037 - 6.037

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 24.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 10 - 50m.
From 10 to 50 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Red Sea to East London The most common in Southern Africa is A. Vagus
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on invertebrates, including worms, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms (Ref. 5213), and small fish (Ref. 3670).
  • Fischer, W., I. Sousa, C. Silva, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Feral and A. Massinga 1990 Fichas FAO de identificaçao de espécies para actividades de pesca. Guia de campo das espécies comerciais marinhas e de águas salobras de Moçambique. Publicaçao preparada em collaboraçao com o Instituto de Investigaçao Pesquiera de Moçambique, com financiamento do Projecto PNUD/FAO MOZ/86/030 e de NORAD. Roma, FAO. 1990. 424 p. (Ref. 5213)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5213&speccode=151 External link.
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Diseases and Parasites

Procamallanus Infection 8. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Size at sex change = 19.1 TL; age at sex change = 1.95 years (Ref. 55367).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Acanthopagrus berda

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 9 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGGACTGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTCATTCGGGCCGAACTAAGCCAGCCTGGCGCTCTCCTTGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTACAATGTTATTGTTACAGCACATGCATTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATCATGATTGGGGGGTTTGGAAACTGATTAATCCCACTTATG---ATTGGTGCCCCTGACATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTGCTTCCCCCTTCATTTCTTCTCCTGTTAGCTTCTTCCGGAGTTGAAGCCGGAGCCGGCACTGGATGAACAGTCTACCCTCCCCTAGCAGGCAATCTCGCCCACGCAGGTGCATCAGTTGATTTA---ACAATCTTTTCCCTTCATTTGGCCGGAATTTCATCCATTCTTGGTGCCATTAACTTCATCACTACAATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCGGCCATTTCACAGTACCAAACACCCCTCTTCGTTTGGGCCGTTCTAATTACCGCCGTCCTGCTTCTTTTGTCTCTTCCGGTTCTTGCTGCC---GGAATTACTATACTCCTCACAGATCGAAATCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCAGCCGGAGGAGGGGACCCAATTCTTTATCAGCACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Acanthopagrus berda

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
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