| Common names: angelfish (English), muñeca (Espanol) |
Holacanthus limbaughi Baldwin, 1963
Deep compressed body; a small mouth with brush-like teeth; preopercle with large spine at its angle, with vertical margin serrated; bone between preopercle and operculum with 1-4 large spines; bone under eye without large, rear-pointing spines; a single, un- notched dorsal fin, XIV, 17-18; anal rays III,17-18; dorsal and anal fins end in filaments; tail straight; lateral line weakly developed, ends under end of soft dorsal fin; large (45-48 in lateral series) regularly arranged, very rough scales with distinct ridges on the exposed part, scales extend out onto the median fins.
Blue-grey; whitish tail fin; a small (~ eye-sized) white spot on upper side above tip of pectoral fin; margins of dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins electric blue; juveniles grey-brown with about 7 narrow blue bars, including two on head.
Size: grows to at least 30 cm.
Habitat: coral reefs.
Depth: 2-100 m.
Known only from Clipperton Island.
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic
Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, TEP oceanic island (s) endemic, Clipperton Island endemic, Island (s), Island (s) only
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
Catalog Number: USNM 178998
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Limbaugh, W. Baldwin & Party
Year Collected: 1956
Locality: Clipperton Island,Northwest Shore., Clipperton Island, Pacific
Habitat and Ecology
Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only
Water Column Position: Mid Water, Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column
Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
Diet: benthic microalgae, sponges/seasquirts/bryozoa, sessile crustacea, sessile worms, sessile molluscs, zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Holacanthus limbaughi
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
CITES: Not listed
This species has a highly restricted distribution with the entirety of its population confined to reef habitat in the Clipperton Atoll,with an area of occupancy estimated to be less than <10 km2. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g., the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama and the offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species restricted distribution, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species. However, this species is found in deeper waters and declines for this species may not be as severe as for other more shallow-water species.
There do not appear to be conservation measures in place for this species. The species does not appear to have been recorded from any marine protected areas. This species should be carefully monitored, given its restricted range and reef-restricted habitat.