Common names: angelfish (English), muñeca (Espanol), ángel (Espanol)
- Allen, G.R. 1985 Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=4858&speccode=10352
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic
Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, TEP oceanic island (s) endemic, Revillagigedo Islands endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
- Krupp, F. and W. Schneider 1995 Pomacanthidae. Angeles. p. 1388-1391. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9333) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9333&speccode=11172
Habitat and Ecology
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 1 - 1
Temperature range (°C): 24.554 - 24.554
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.162 - 0.162
Salinity (PPS): 34.642 - 34.642
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.733 - 4.733
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.429 - 0.429
Silicate (umol/l): 3.286 - 3.286
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only
Water Column Position: Surface, Near Surface, Mid Water, Near Bottom, Bottom, Bottom + water column
Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
Diet: benthic microalgae, sessile crustacea, sessile worms, sessile molluscs, zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs
Life History and Behavior
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
CITES: Not listed
- IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006. http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=57073
This species has a restricted distribution with the majority of the population confined to a reef habitat in a single location (two locations if Clarion is considered separate from the other three islands), and its area of occupancy is estimated to be less than <50 km2. It has previously been collected for the aquarium trade.
In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g. the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama and the offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species restricted distribution and shallow water habitat, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species.
This species is almost entirely limited to the Revillagigedo Islands Marine Protected Area with collection of animals prohibited in Mexican waters (Endoh 2007). This species should be carefully monitored, given its restricted range and shallow reef-associated habitat.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
- Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=4537&speccode=1255
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