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BiologyPrefers flowing waters of perennial rivers. Uncommon in dams. Feeds on a wide variety of food items, primarily algae and aquatic insect larvae; also takes small fishes, snails, freshwater mussels and drifting organisms such as beetles and ants. Breeds in spring and summer, migrating upstream in rain swollen rivers to spawn in rapids. Males mature at 70 cm FL, females mature at 28 cm FL. Occurs with the small-scale yellowfish in many Transvaal rivers (Ref. 7248).