Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits near surface of quiet to flowing water, usually near margins of clear, sandy to gravelly headwaters, creeks and small rivers. 9.7 cm max TL (Ref. 5723). Feeds on terrestrial arthropods, aquatic insects, small crustaceans, and diatoms (Ref. 10294). Spawning occurs over gravel (Ref. 79012). Not a seasonal killifish. Is easy to maintain in the aquarium (Ref. 27139).
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Distribution

Range Description

Range includes the Gulf Slope, from Galveston Bay drainage, Texas, east to Choctawhatchee River system, Florida, and middle Chattahoochee River drainage, Georgia; Mississippi River basin from the Gulf to southeastern Kansas (Holcroft 2004), central Missouri, southern Illinois, western Kentucky, and eastern Tennessee (Page and Burr 2011).
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Gulf Slope, from Galveston Bay drainage, Texas, east to Choctawhatchee River system, Florida, and middle Chattahoochee River drainage, Georgia; Mississippi River basin from the Gulf to southeastern Kansas (Holcroft 2004), central Missouri, southern Illinois, western Kentucky, and eastern Tennessee (Page and Burr 2011).

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North America: Mississippi River basins from eastern Tennessee, western Kentucky, southern Illinois and central Missouri south to Gulf of Mexico (west to central Oklahoma) in the USA; Gulf Slope drainages from Chattahoochee River in Georgia to Galveston Bay in Texas, USA.
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endemic to a single nation

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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U.S.A.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 80 mm TL
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Max. size

8.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 27139))
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Length: 10 cm

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Type Information

Type for Zygonectes pulchellus
Catalog Number: USNM 3502
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): A. Whipple
Locality: Sugar Loaf Creek, Arkansas, Arkansas, United States, North America
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs near the surface in quiet or flowing, relatively clear, sand-gravel bottom headwaters, creeks, and small rivers; often occurs along margins near thick stands of emergent vegetation (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: This species occurs near the surface in quiet or flowing, relatively clear, sand-gravel bottom headwaters, creeks, and small rivers; often occurs along margins near thick stands of emergent vegetation (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011).

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Environment

benthopelagic; non-migratory; freshwater
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.155 - 1.005

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.155 - 1.005
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats various arthropods and algae (Smith 1979).

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300

Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

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Global Abundance

100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but large. This species is common in most of its range.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Fundulus olivaceus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGATTTTTCTCAACCAATCACAAAGATATCGGCACCCTTTATTTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGGACAGCACTC---AGCCTCCTTATTCGGGCTGAATTAAGCCAGCCAGGTTCCCTCCTGGGGGAC---GACCAAATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACAGCCCATGCCTTTGTAATAATCTTCTTTATGGTTATACCAATCATAATTGGGGGTTTCGGGAATTGACTAATTCCGCTTATG---ATCGGCGCCCCAGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAACAATATAAGTTTTTGACTACTCCCCCCCTCATTTTTATTACTTTTAGCTTCTTCAGGAGTTGAAGCGGGGGCAGGAACCGGTTGAACTGTATATCCTCCCCTGGCAGGAAACTTGGCCCACGCAGGGGCTTCAGTAGACTTA---ACCATCTTTTCTTTACACTTAGCTGGTATTTCATCGATTTTAGGCGCTATTAATTTTATTACCACTATTATTAATATAAAACCCCCGGCCATTTCTCAATACCAAACTCCCTTATTCGTGTGGGCTGTTTTAATTACTGCTGTCCTTCTTCTCCTTTCCCTCCCAGTCCTTGCCGCA---GGTATTACGATACTACTTACTGACCGAAACTTGAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCAGCCGGGGGAGGGGATCCTATTCTTTATCAACACCTCTTTTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCTGAAGTCTATATTTTAATTTTACCTGGCTTCGGAATAATTTCACATATTGTAGCGTATTATTCAGGCAAAAAA---GAACCATTCGGGTATATAGGAATAGTATGAGCAATAATAGCAATTGGCCTCCTTGGCTTCATCGTTTGAGCCCACCATATGTTTACAGTAGGAATGGATGTCGATACTCGAGCCTACTTTACATCCGCTACTATAATTATTGCTATCCCTACAGGGGTAAAAGTATTTAGTTGACTG---GCAACTCTTCATGGGGGT---TCAATTAAATGGGAAACCCCCTTACTCTGAGCATTAGGTTTTATCTTTCTATTTACAGTAGGGGGCCTTACAGGTATCGTATTAGCCAACTCATCCTTAGACATCGTACTTCATGATACTTACTATGTGGTTGCTCACTTCCACTACGTT---CTGTCAATAGGAGCTGTATTTGCGATCATTGCTGCATTCGTTCACTGATTTCCCCTGTTTTCAGGTTATACCTTACATAGCACATGAACTAAGATTCACTTCGGAATCATGTTTGTTGGTGTAAATTTAACCTTTTTCCCACAGCACTTCCTTGGTTTAGCAGGCATGCCTCGG---CGGTACTCCGACTATCCAGACGCGTATACT---CTTTGAAATACAGTATCTTCTATTGGATCTTTAATTTCCCTAGTAGCAGTAATCATATTCCTGTTTATTATTTGAGAAGCATTCGCAGCCAAGCGTGAAGTT---TTATCTGTTGAGATAACAGCAACTAAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Fundulus olivaceus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, apparently stable trend, and lack of major threats.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Population

Population
This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Total adult population size is unknown but large. This species is common in most of its range.

Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

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Threats

Major Threats
No major threats are known.
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Comments: No major threats are known.

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Not Evaluated
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Allozyme data indicate that Euryzonus and F. OLIVACEUS are sister species (Cashner et al. 1992). Exhibits a high degree of genetic variation both within and among populations. The genus Fundulus was removed from Atheriniformes:Cyprinodontidae and placed in Cyprinodontiformes:Fundulidae by Parenti (1981); pending confirmation based on other character suites, this change was not accepted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991). See Wiley (1986) for a study of the evolutionary relationships of Fundulus topminnows based on morphological characters. See Cashner et al. (1992) for an allozyme-based phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fundulus.

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