Overview

Comprehensive Description

Pterolebias longipinnis Garman, 1895 ZBK

(Figs. 5-7)

Pterolebias longipinnis Garman, 1895 ZBK : 142 ( type locality: Santarem [Amazon River basin , Estado do Pará , Brazil ] ).

Pterolebias bokermanni Travassos, 1955 ZBK : 35 ( type locality: Guajara-Mirim River [correctly city of Guajara-Mirim , Mamore River floodplains, Madeira River drainage, Amazonian basin] , Territorio de Guaporé [now Estado de Rondônia ] , Brazil ).

Rivulichthys luelingi Meinken, 1969 ZBK : 423 ( type locality: forest pool in the region of Chapare River [ Mamore River drainage, a part of the Madeira River drainage, Amazonian basin] about 4 km from Todos Santos [ Departamento de Cochabamba ], Bolivia ).

Material examined. Lower Amazonas River basin . Brazil : Pará : USNM 120429 , lectotype , male, 44.7 mm SL (lectotype designated by Thomerson, 1984: 528). MZUSP 5048 , 2; Cachoeira do Arari, Marajo Island ; Excursão Departamento de Zoologia , 12 June 1966 . UFRJ 3676 , 2 (c&s); Marajo Island ; no date on collectors.

Madeira River drainage, Brazil : Rondônia : MNRJ 8672 , holotype of P. bokermanni Travassos ZBK , male, 34.4 mm SL; Guajará-Mirim ; H. Schultz , August 1953 . MNRJ 8697 , paratype , male, 39.7 mm SL; Forte Principe da Beira, Guapore River floodplains ; H. Schultz , October 1953 . UFRJ 5882 , 41; UFRJ 5883 , 6 (c&s); temporary pool in Guajara- Mirim, Mamore River floodplains , 20°45'53.5”S65°20'21.7”W ; W. J. E. M. Costa, S. Lima and A. Pinto , 7 June 2003 . Brazil : Mato Grosso : UFRJ 3644 , 7; UFRJ 6139 , 2 (c&s); 2 km from Vila Bela, Guapore River floodplains ; W. J. E. M. Costa, M. I. Landim, C. Moreira and R. D'Arrigo , 28 April 1996 . Bolivia : Beni : CBF 2041 , 3; CBF 2047 , 6 (2 c&s); Ballivian, Espiritu , Yacuma River drainage ; J. Sarmiento & W. Hanagarth , 5- 6 May 1987 . CBF 2021 , 3 (1 c&s); idem ; J. Sarmiento & W. Hanagarth , 2- 3 May 1987 . CBF 2102 , 1; idem ; W. Hanagarth , 29 January 1983 . CBF 1877 , 6; CBF 1716 , 4; idem ; J. Sarmiento & W. Hanagarth , 23 April 1987 . CBF 0032 , 5; Cercado, Trinidad ; G. Loubens et al. , 27 June 1986 . UFRJ 4385 , 2; road Santa Cruz-Trinidad, Santa Cruz, San Pablo River floodplains ; W. J. E. M. Costa, C. P. Bove and S. Barrera , 22 February 1997 . MZUSP 27856 , 2; San Juan Creek, Trinidad ; ORSTOM-UTB , March 1983 .

Paraná River system. Argentina : Corrientes : MZUSP 10241 , 10; Pirajui Creek ; E. Arriguti , 1973 . Brazil : Mato Grosso : UFRJ 4901 , 71; UFRJ 4896 , 91; UFRJ 4905 , 108; UFRJ 4889 , 59; UFRJ 5583 , 2; UFRJ 6140 , 6 (c&s); temporary swamp near Porto Cercado ; W. J. E. M. Costa, A. C. Bacellar, M. A. Barbosa and F. Autran , 9- 10 June 1999 . UFRJ 4911 , 9; UFRJ 4894 , 3; about 5 km N from Porto Cercado ; W. J. E. M. Costa, A. C. Bacellar, M. A. Barbosa and F. Autran , 11 June 1999 . UFRJ 6141 , 2; idem ; W. J. E. M. Costa, B. B. Costa, C. P. Bove, M. A. Barbosa & R. Cunha , 18 July 2003 . UFRJ 4884 , 17 ; swamp 5 km NW from Posto SaoLuis , RPPN Sesc-Pantanal ; W. J. E. M. Costa, A. C. Bacellar, M. A. Barbosa and F. Autran , 12 June 1999 . UFRJ 5455 , 9; UFRJ 5456 , 37; Porto Cercado ; W. J. E. M. Costa, M. A. Barbosa, R. Cunha and S. Lima , 12 June 2002 . UFRJ 3645 , 4; swamp 5 km S from Santo Antonio do Leverger ; W. J. E. M. Costa, M. I. Landim, C. Moreira and R. D'Arrigo , 26 April 1996 . Brazil : Mato Grosso do Sul : MZUSP 49059 , 3; Corumba : Passo do Lontra, Miranda River floodplains ; O. Froehlich , 28 January 1992 . MZUSP 38397 , 1; Cáceres ; P. D. Cardoso , March 1987 . UFRJ 5888 , 7; Camburizal near Posto Espirito Santo, RPPN Sesc-Pantanal ; W. J. E. M. Costa, B. B. Costa, C. P. Bove, M. A. Barbosa & R. Cunha , 15 July 2003 .

FIGURE 5. Pterolebias longipinnis ZBK , UFRJ 6141, male, 44.6 mm SL (one day after collection); Brazil: Mato Grosso: Porto Cercado: rio Paraguay basin.

FIGURE 6. Pterolebias longipinnis ZBK , UFRJ 5882, male, 35.7 mm SL (one day after collection); Brazil: Rondônia : Guajarâ-Mirim : rio Mamoré floodplains.

FIGURE 7. Pterolebias longipinnis ZBK , UFRJ 5583, female, 33.5 mm SL (one day after collection); Brazil: Mato Grosso: Porto Cercado: rio Paraguay basin.

Diagnosis : Distinguished from P. phasianus ZBK by having a deeper body (body depth 25.0-28.8 % SL vs. 19.5-23.0 % SL in males, 25.3-27.0 % SL vs. 19.4-23.1 % SL in females; caudal peduncle depth 15.8-17.8 % SL vs. 11.8-14.8 % SL in males, 14.9-16.8 % SL vs. 11.9-13.7 % SL in females), three to seven rows of scales on anal-fin base in males (vs. a single row), one or two rows of scales on dorsal-fin base in males (vs. no scales), pelvic-fin bases medially united (vs. separated), more neuromasts in the infraorbital series (2-3 + 19-21 + 1, vs. 1-2 + 16-17 + 1), preopercular series (2 + 11-14, vs. 2 + 9-10), and mandibular series (6-7 + 2-4, vs. 5 + 2), flank light brown with oblique rows of green dots (vs. blue with dark brown stripes), absence of a subdistal zigzag bluish white line on anal fin in male (vs. presence). Pterolebias longipinnis ZBK usually has more dorsal and anal fin rays than P. phasianus ZBK (9-11 and 17-22, respectively, vs. 7-9 and 15-17).

Description. Morphometric data appear in Table 2. Males larger than females, largest male 50.5 mm SL. Dorsal profile slightly convex from snout to end of dorsal-fin base, gently concave on caudal peduncle. Ventral profile slightly convex from lower jaw to end of anal-fin base, weakly concave along caudal peduncle. Body somewhat deep, subcylindrical anteriorly, deeper than wide, to compressed posteriorly. Greatest body depth at level of pelvic-fin base. Jaws short, snout slightly pointed.

TABLE 2. Morphometric data of Pterolebias longipinnis ZBK and P. phasianus ZBK .

P. longipinnis ZBK P. phasianus ZBK
males females males females
(n = 15) (n = 15) (n = 9) (n = 9)
Standard length (mm) 33.8-47.6 28.7-47.1 31.4-41.8 25.7-32.3
Percents of standard length
Body depth 25.0-28.8 25.3-27.0 19.5-23.0 19.4-23.1
Caudal peduncle depth 15.8-17.8 14.9-16.8 11.8-14.8 11.9-13.7
Predorsal length 76.8-79.8 79.5-82.6 78.6-82.5 804-83.3
Prepelvic length 46.1-51.8 48.5-54.5 47.8-51.0 50.3-52.9
Length of dorsal-fin base 10.2-13.1 8.7-12.0 7.9-9.9 6.7-9.1
Length of anal-fin base 26.7-31.2 22.5-28.9 23.1-24.6 19.7-23.1
Caudal-fin length 68.5-80.3 45.6-49.0 59.6-69.4 44.9-50.8
Pectoral-fin length 25.2-26.5 22.5-26.3 22.2-26.2 22.0-22.8
Pelvic-fin length 43.5-71.6 24.4-34.3 33.2-49.5 17.3-20.8
Head length 26.8-29.3 27.9-30.8 25.0-27.5 26.1-27.8
Percents of head length
Head depth 70.9-78.9 66.4-73.4 60.7-66.0 614-65.9
Head width 66.1-71.2 67.8-72.4 63.6-70.0 684-75.7
Snout length 14.7-16.9 13.7-15.7 14.8-16.8 13.3-15.3
Lower jaw length 16.5-20.7 15.9-18.4 16.6-19.7 17.6-19.2
Eye diameter 34.5-40.2 33.9-42.3 35.7-41.0 37.3-41.0

Tip of dorsal fin pointed with short filamentous rays in males, rounded to slightly pointed in females. Anal fin approximately rectangular in males, longer than deep, and long, reaching vertical through middle of caudal fin; tip of anal fin pointed, with filamentous rays. Anal fin rounded, short, and without filamentous rays in females. Caudal fin rounded to subtruncate, long in males, with posterior margin terminating in fringe-like posterior extensions; caudal fin short, elliptical, and without posterior extensions in females. Pectoral fin elliptical, posterior margin reaching vertical between pelvic-fin base and anus. Pelvic fin pointed, terminating in long tip, reaching between middle of anal-fin base and caudal-fin base in males, and between base of 4th and 13th anal-fin rays in females. Pelvic-fin bases medially united. Dorsal-fin origin on vertical between base of 12th and 14th anal-fin rays, and between neural spines of 18th and 22nd vertebrae. Anal-fin origin between pleural ribs of 12th and 15th vertebrae. Dorsal-fin rays 9-11; anal-fin rays 17-22; caudal-fin rays 24-28; pectoral-fin rays 15-16; pelvic-fin rays 8-9.

Scales large, cycloid. Body and head entirely scaled, except anterior ventral surface of head. Body squamation slightly extending on caudal-fin base, with 3-5 transverse rows of scales onto caudal-fin base; 1-2 rows of scales on dorsal-fin base, 4-7 on anal-fin base. Frontal squamation E-patterned; E-scales not overlapping medially; scales arranged in irregular circular pattern around A-scale without exposed margins. Longitudinal series of scales 30-33; transverse series of scales 8; scale rows around caudal peduncle 16. Contact organs absent.

Cephalic neuromasts: supraorbital 3 + 3, parietal 1, anterior rostral 1, posterior rostral 1, infraorbital 2-3 + 19-21 + 1, preorbital 3-5, otic 1, postotic 1-2, supratemporal 1, median opercular 1, ventral opercular 2-3, preopercular 2 + 11-14, mandibular 6-7 + 2-4, lateral mandibular 3. One neuromast on each scale of lateral series.

Coloration: Males: Side of body light brown, with oblique rows of bright blue to green dots; often small bright orange spot on humeral region; sometimes black humeral blotch, more frequent in individuals from Mamoré River basin in Bolivia. Dorsum light brown, sometimes orangish brown in individuals from Mamoré River basin in Brazil; venter purplish white. Side of head light green with faint purplish gray spots. Jaws light gray. Infraorbital region and ventral surface of head light gray. Iris yellowish green, with dark brown bar crossing center of eye. Dorsal fin greenish yellow with small dark reddish brown spots, darker on basal portion of fin. Anal fin light greenish yellow, basal region light blue, with pale greenish brown spots, darker on posterior portion of fin, then alternating with bluish white spots; often distal portion of fin pink; about 60% of individuals from Mamoré , Guaporé and Paraguay river basins in Brazil with narrow distal black stripe and narrow light blue subdistal stripe, but about 40% of individuals without vestige of such stripes; sometimes orange subdistal stripe in individuals from Mamoré River basin in Brazil; often melanophores concentrated on distal portion of fin in individuals from Mamoré River basin in Bolivia. Caudal fin greenish yellow with small pale greenish brown spots and light green dots; often dorsal and ventral margins and filaments dark orange. Pelvic fin greenish yellow, base light blue with dark reddish brown spots, filament light orange, sometimes tip white; sometimes dark orange pigmentation along fin. Pectoral fin hyaline with narrow gray bars.

Females : Side of body gray with oblique rows of pale green dots. Dorsum gray, venter light gray. Side of head pale green. Jaws light gray. Infraorbital region and ventral surface of head light gray. Iris yellowish, with dark brown bar crossing center of eye. Unpaired fins hyaline with faint gray spots. Paired fins hyaline.

Distribution: Lower Amazonian basin, Madeira River drainage, and Paraná River system, in Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina (Fig. 8).

Habitat: Temporary lagoons in open sunny areas, sometimes at borders of forests.

  • Wilson J. E. M. Costa (2005): The Neotropical annual killifish genus Pterolebias Garman (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): phylogenetic relationships, descriptive morphology, and taxonomic revision. Zootaxa 1067, 1-36: 13-17, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3A9C14FE-2B1A-408F-BACA-4F65D98E22FB
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Biology

Feeds on worms, crustaceans and insects (Ref. 7020). Bottom spawner, 3 months incubation. Is easy to maintain in the aquarium (Ref. 27139).
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Distribution

South America: Amazon and Paraguay River basins.
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Amazon River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 120 mm TL
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Max. size

12.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 27139))
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Type Information

Cotype for Pterolebias longipinnis
Catalog Number: USNM 120429
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1866
Locality: Brazil Santarem, Brazil, South America
  • Cotype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

benthopelagic; non-migratory; freshwater; pH range: 6.5 - 7.0; dH range: 5 - 8
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on worms, crustaceans and insects.
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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