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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in coastal waters (Ref. 30573). Young enter estuaries (Ref. 4833). Searches for prey using a protruding pipette-like mouth or by sieving potential food through their gill rakers (Ref. 26569). Feeds on small fishes, shrimps, other crustaceans, and polychaetes. Sold fresh and dried salted; also made into fishmeal.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in the Indo-West Pacific, from South Africa, Red Sea, coasts of India, through south-east Asia to southern Japan and east to Tonga.
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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and the east African coast (30° to about 50°S) to Australia and Tahiti, north to the Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 27956).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Natal (South Africa) and Madagascar east to Philippines and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northwestern Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 14
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Size

Maximum size: 210 mm FL
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Max. size

21.0 cm FL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5525))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Found in coastal waters; predominantly close to the substrate. Feeds on small fish, shrimps, other crustaceans, and polychaetes. Occurs at temperatures ranging from 26 to 29°C. Sold fresh and dried salted in markets, also made into fishmeal.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Body silvery; anterior part of anal fin yellow; dorsal, pectoral and pelvic fins colorless. Scales minute. Head and breast scaleless. Nuchal spine on nape. Mouth pointing forward when protracted.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This common species inhabits inshore coastal waters, river mouths and estuaries, and occurs in schools. It is found at depths to 75 m, usually over muddy to sandy-mud substrates. The juveniles especially enter estuaries. The species feeds on small fishes, prawns, other crustaceans and polychaetes.

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; brackish; marine; depth range 10 - 110 m (Ref. 12260)
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Depth range based on 82 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 30 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 125
  Temperature range (°C): 22.789 - 28.013
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.048 - 8.608
  Salinity (PPS): 34.334 - 35.138
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.877 - 4.770
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.064 - 0.819
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.277 - 14.521

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 125

Temperature range (°C): 22.789 - 28.013

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.048 - 8.608

Salinity (PPS): 34.334 - 35.138

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.877 - 4.770

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.064 - 0.819

Silicate (umol/l): 2.277 - 14.521
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 10 - 110m.
From 10 to 110 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Trophic Strategy

Found in coastal waters (Ref. 30573). Young enter estuaries (Ref. 4833). Searches for prey using a protruding pipette-like mouth or by sieving potential food through their gill rakers (Ref. 26569). Feed on small fishes, shrimps, other crustaceans, and polychaetes.
  • Quéro, J.-C., J.C. Njock and M.M. de la Hoz 1990 Sternoptychidae. p. 275-282. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4462)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=4462&speccode=40 External link.
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Diseases and Parasites

Rhipidocotyle Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Elongoparorchis Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Camallanus Infection 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Camallanus Infection 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Gazza minuta

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 10 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCTTTATATAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCTGGCATAGTGGGGACAGCCTTA---AGCCTGCTTATCCGGGCAGAATTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCCCTCCTCGGAGAC---GACCACATCTACAATGTTATCGTCACCGCCCATGCATTCGTAATAATTTTTTTTATAGTCATACCTATTATGATTGGAGGCTTTGGCAACTGACTAATCCCCCTAATG---ATCGGGGCCCCTGATATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTTTGGCTTCTGCCTCCCTCGTTTCTGCTGCTGTTAGCATCTTCCGGCATTGAAGCTGGTGCTGGCACAGGGTGGACCGTCTACCCCCCTTTGGCGGGGAATCTTGCCCATGCAGGAGCTTCTGTTGACCTG---ACAATCTTCTCACTACACTTGGCTGGGATTTCCTCAATTTTAGGGGCAATCAACTTTATTACAACAATCATTAATATAAAACCCCCTGCAATTTCACAATTCCAAACTCCTTTGTTTGTTTGGGCTGTGCTTATCACAGCCGTGCTTCTTCTACTTTCCTTACCAGTTCTCGCAGCC---GGCATCACTATGCTCCTAACAGATCGAAATCTAAACACTACTTTCTTCGACCCTGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATTCTGTACCAGCATTTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gazza minuta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 22
Specimens with Barcodes: 33
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Larson, H.

Reviewer/s
Hoese, D. & Pippard, H.

Contributor/s

Justification

This is a widespread and common species with no known major threats to the global population. It is listed as Least Concern. Further taxonomic research is however required for the species, as records from the Cook Islands and Society Islands (French Polynesia) may refer to an undescribed species.

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Population

Population
This is a common species, but no population statistics are available.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

There do not appear to be any major threats to this species at this time.


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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

This species occurs within several marine protected areas within its wide distribution.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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