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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Oceanic, found below 1,000 m during the day and from the surface to 200 m at night (Ref. 4479). Neustonic to mesopelagic (Ref. 58302). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 31442). Lipid content is 3.3 % in fresh body weight and wax ester is 10 % in total lipids (Ref. 9197). Reach sexual maturity at 4,6 cm (Ref. 47377).
  • Hulley, P.A. 1990 Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
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Distribution

Sable Island Bank to subtropical convergence, but absent over minimum region off Brazil and lower abundance in Sargasso Sea
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Namibia (gap over region of cyclonic gyre 4°-6°S). Western Atlantic: USA to Subtropical Convergence, [but absent over minimum region off Brazil according to Ref. 4479] and lower abundance in Sargasso Sea. Also in the southern Indian Ocean, North and South Pacific (absent in equatorial waters). South China Sea (Ref.74511).
  • Hulley, P.A. 1990 Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
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Atlantic; Pacific, including Hawaiian Ridge.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 15; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 21 - 25; Vertebrae: 38 - 40
  • Hulley, P.A. 1986 Myctophidae. p. 282-321. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4066)
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Size

Maximum size: 60 mm SL
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Max. size

6.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479))
  • Hulley, P.A. 1990 Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
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Diagnostic Description

Branchiostegal rays: 8-9 (Ref. 31442). Anal organs 14-15; males with single supracaudal gland filling about 1/2 the supracaudal space, females with 3 coalesced infracaudal gland patches, sometimes separate (Ref. 39633).
  • Hulley, P.A. 1986 Myctophidae. p. 282-321. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4066)
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Type Information

Type for Hygophum reinhardtii
Catalog Number: USNM 84095
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): T. Reinhardt
Year Collected: 1919
Locality: ca. 3-4 Miles Offshore From Alika Lava Flow, Dist. of Kona, West Coast of Is. of Hawaii, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Found from the surface to 200 m at night, below 1000 m during day.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 0 - 1050 m (Ref. 44036)
  • Chen, S. 2002 Fauna Sinica, Osteichthyes. Myctophiformes, Cetomimiformes, Osteoglossiformes. 349p. Fauna Sinica series. Beijing: Science Press. (Ref. 44036)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 253 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 232 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 3292
  Temperature range (°C): 3.468 - 26.893
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.128 - 34.674
  Salinity (PPS): 34.279 - 37.193
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.260 - 6.202
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.029 - 2.637
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.798 - 64.709

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 3292

Temperature range (°C): 3.468 - 26.893

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.128 - 34.674

Salinity (PPS): 34.279 - 37.193

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.260 - 6.202

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.029 - 2.637

Silicate (umol/l): 0.798 - 64.709
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 984m.
Recorded at 984 meters.

Habitat: bathypelagic.
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Oceanic, found below 1,000 m during the day and from the surface to 200 m at night (Ref. 4479).
  • Palomares, M.L.D. and D. Pauly 1989 A multiple regression model for predicting the food consumption of marine fish populations. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 40(3):259-273. (Ref. 2011)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous (Ref. 31442).
  • Moser, H.G. and E.H. Ahlstrom 1996 Myctophidae: lanternfishes. p. 387-475. In H.G. Moser (ed.) The early stages of fishes in the California Current Region. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Atlas No. 33. 1505 p. (Ref. 31442)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hygophum reinhardtii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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