Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: grunt (English), burro (Espanol), roncador (Espanol), ronco (Espanol)
 
Haemulon maculicauda (Gill, 1862)


Spot-tail grunt



Body oblong, compressed; mouth slightly oblique, opens at level below eye, lips not fleshy; underside of chin with 2 large pores, 2 pores in a deep hole, and a central groove; gill rakers 22-29 (usually 23-26); preoperculum finely serrated, without spines; dorsal fin continuous, with small to moderate notch in middle, XII-XIV, 15-18 (usually XIII, 15-16); anal rays III, 8-11; tail forked; soft dorsal and anal densely scaled nearly to the edge of the fin; lateral-line scales 50-52; scales above the lateral line in lines parallel to body axis.



Grey; scale center white, forming narrow white, longitudinally oriented stripes on side; basal half of tail fin blackish; red inside mouth; juveniles with dark midlateral stripe and spot at base of caudal fin.

Size: to 30 cm.

Habitat: forms large aggregations on coral or rocky reefs.

Depth: 1-33 m.

Southern Baja and the Gulf of California to Ecuador and Malpelo.
   
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Biology

Found in schools around coastal reefs during the day, dispersing over sandy bottoms at night (Ref. 9114). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9114).
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Baja and the Gulf of California to northern Peru, including Malpelo Island.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Colombia.
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 33 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 30.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm ---
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114)); max. published weight: 557 g (Ref. 40926)
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Diagnostic Description

Body oblong, compressed, and deep (depth contained 2.2 to 2.7 times in standard length); mouth large and terminal, its posterior end located at the same level as the anterior edge of the pupil; first gill arch with 22 to 39 gill rakers; dorsal fin notched, with 12 to 14 spines and 14 to 17 soft rays (XII-XIV, 14-17); second anal spine slightly longer and stronger than third; scale series above lateral line is parallel to it; body dark brown; each scale bearing a pearly blue spot, the spots appearing to form lines following the scale series; fins yellowish; caudal peduncle with a large spot (Ref. 55763).
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Type Information

Type for Orthostoechus maculicauda
Catalog Number: USNM 6557
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Xantus
Locality: Lower California, Cape San Lucas., Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This reef-associated species can be found in schools around coastal reefs during the day, dispersing over sandy substrate at night (McKay and Schneider 1995) to depths of 33 m. It can also be found at deep rocky walls as well as in massive corals and exposed shallow rocky reefs in Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff 2006).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine
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Depth range based on 41 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 51
  Temperature range (°C): 22.443 - 24.488
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.290 - 3.645
  Salinity (PPS): 34.695 - 35.261
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.747 - 4.879
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.457 - 0.897
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.677 - 7.763

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 51

Temperature range (°C): 22.443 - 24.488

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.290 - 3.645

Salinity (PPS): 34.695 - 35.261

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.747 - 4.879

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.457 - 0.897

Silicate (umol/l): 3.677 - 7.763
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Found in schools around coastal reefs during the day, dispersing over sandy bottoms at night (Ref. 9114). Carnivore (Ref. 57615).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Haemulon maculicauda

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGGGCTGGGATAGTAGGAACAGCCCTA---AGCCTACTTATCCGGGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCACTCCTTGGGGAC---GACCAGATTTATAACGTAATTGTTACTGCGCATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTCTCATTGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTTGTTCCCCTAATG---ATCGGAGCGCCCGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATGAACAATATGAGCTTTTGACTCCTCCCTCCTTCTTTCCTTCTCCTTCTCGCCTCTTCAGGGGTAGAGGCTGGGGCTGGAACGGGGTGAACTGTCTACCCCCCTCTAGCTGGGAATCTAGCACATGCCGGGGCGTCGGTTGACCTT---ACAATCTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGTGTCTCATCGATCCTTGGAGCCATCAACTTCATTACAACAATTATTAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCGCAGTACCAAACTCCCCTATTCGTATGATCAGTTCTCGTTACTGCCGTCCTTCTTCTCCTGTCTCTCCCAGTACTCGCAGCT---GGCATTACAATGCTCCTTACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACCACTTTCTTCGACCCCGCCGGAGGAGGTGACCCTATTCTTTACCAACATCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Haemulon maculicauda

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G. & Robertson, R.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and common throughout most of its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is considered common throughout most of its range.

A survey made in Gulf Dulce, Costa Rica, showed a mean density of 0,308 individuals per m2 for this species (Figueroa 2001).This species was found in a survey at Los Islotes, Gulf of California, and is considered to be frequent and abundant, with a 30-70% abundance (Aburto-Oropeza and Balart 2001). In a survey at Gorgona Island coral reefs, Colombia (Zapata and Morales 1997), a mean density of 3.169 individuals per 10 m2 was registered. The mean density found at Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, was 0.07±0.27 individuals per m2 (Dominici-Arosemena et al. 2005). In Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, México, this fish was captured eight times within 12 (one each month) field trips throughout a year (Rojo-Vázquez et al. 2001).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. This species is of minor commercial importance.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider 1995 Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9114&speccode=13701 External link.
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