Overview

Comprehensive Description

Geographic distribution of T. (M.) eschmeyeri ZBK .

In his review of the Atlantic scorpionfishes, Eschmeyer (1969) reported that T. (M.) eschmeyeri ZBK (as T. (M.) capensis ) was distributed only off the southwestern tip of South Africa, based on previous literature reports related to Scorpaena capensis Gilchrist & von Bonde ZBK (= T. eschmeyeri ZBK ) and a single museum specimen (BMNH 1935.5.2.10, 320 mm SL). Subsequently, Parin et al. (1995) and Pakhorukov (2001) reported T. capensis (probably T. eschmeyeri ZBK ) from the Rio Grande Rise, southwestern Atlantic, on the basis of collected specimens and underwater visual observations respectively. In the Pacific Ocean, Paulin (1982) reported T. eschmeyeri ZBK (as T. capensis ) from 29 specimens (185-400 mm SL) from northern New Zealand. Eschmeyer (1986) suggested that the same or a similar species to T. capensis occurs off southern Australia, and Poss (1994) reported T. eschmeyeri ZBK (as T. capensis ) from deep continental slope waters of southern Australia (off Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia). In the Indian Ocean, Shcherbachev(1987) reported T. capensis from the West Australian Ridge and Madagascar Ridge, and Duhamel (1999) reported T. capensis from off the St Paul and Amsterdam Islands. Shcherbachev’s (1987) and Duhamel’s (1999) T. capensis possibly contain T. eschmeyeri ZBK and T. longipedicula . Specimens of T. eschmeyeri ZBK (CSIRO H 5799-01, H 3174-15, H 3174-16, and H 3174-17; see Materials and Methods) and T. longipedicula (all type specimens) examined in this study were collected from the South-West Indian and West Australian Ridges, and South-West Indian Ridge respectively; these are almost the same localities from which Shcherbachev’s (1987) specimens were collected. Williams et al. (1996) reported T. capensis and T. cf cristulata from Western Australia on the basis of CSIRO H 2625-02 and H 2616-01 respectively. Our examinations of both specimens showed that their T. capensis and T. cf cristulata were T. carnomagula and T. eschmeyeri ZBK . Judging from the previous reports and our specimens, we consider T. eschmeyeri ZBK to be widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere, from the western Atlantic to the southwestern Pacific Ocean through the Indian Ocean, between ca. 30° and 45°S at depths of 400-1250 m.

Trachyscorpia carnomagula and T. longipedicula are allopatrically distributed in Australasia and the southwestern Indian Ocean respectively, but both species co-occur with T. eschmeyeri ZBK . Incidentally, T. cristulata (including subspecies) is distributed only in the Northern Hemisphere in the Atlantic Ocean.

Taxonomic problems of T. (T.) cristulata and T. (M.) eschmeyeri ZBK . Ginsburg (1953) recognized T. cristulata (western Atlantic Ocean) and T. echinata (eastern Atlantic) as valid species, but his data for T. echinata were based on a single specimen. Eschmeyer (1969) reviewed previous reports of cristulata and echinata , and recognized them as subspecies, T. (T.) cristulata cristulata and T. (T.) cristulata echinata , but no specimens of the latter taxon were available to Eschmeyer (1969). Since Eschmeyer (1969), all authors have followed this classification without comparing specimens of each taxon. A direct comparison of specimens from the western and eastern sectors of the Atlantic Ocean (including a range of sizes) is required to resolve the status of the species and subspecies.

Eschmeyer (1969) described T. eschmeyeri ZBK (as capensis ) on the basis of one specimen from the southeastern Atlantic (see account under ‘Geographic distribution of T. (M.) eschmeyeri ZBK ’). Characters for specimens of T. eschmeyeri ZBK examined here from the southern Indian Ocean and southwestern Pacific Ocean agree with Eschmeyer’s (1969) description of a southeastern Atlantic specimen. However, although all our preserved specimens were whitish, lacking distinct pigments (except for a black blotch on the dorsal fin in males), Eschmeyer’s specimen was tinged with black all over the body (see Eschmeyer, 1969: fig. 5C). Collections from the southeastern Atlantic Ocean are scant, so further sampling is needed to enable useful comparisons with specimens from the southern Indo-West Pacific.

  • Hiroyuki Motomura, Peter R. Last, Gordon K. Yearsley (2007): Two new species of the scorpionfish genus Trachyscorpia (Sebastidae: Sebastolobinae) from the southern Indo-West Pacific, with comments on the distribution of T. eschmeyeri. Zootaxa 1466, 19-34: 33-33, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1396EA67-3778-4FF3-91FE-8ECA3D1BDD0B
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The following specimens of T. (M.) eschmeyeri ZBK were also examined in this study for comparative purposes -

Tasman Sea:CSIROH 1261-2 , 229.6 mm SL, southeast of St Helens , Tasmania , 41°22-24’S , 148°42’E , 890-895 m , FRV Soela , 5 Apr. 1988 ; CSIROH 1533-2 , 277.0 mm SL, east of Brush Island , New South Wales , 35°29-30’S , 150°50- 51’E , 920-940 m , C. Bulman, FRV Soela , 17 May 1988 ; CSIROH 2702-03 , 252.6 mm SL, northeast of Flinders Island , Tasmania , 39°15-16’S , 148°47-49’E , 910-1000 m , A. Graham, FRV Southern Surveyor , 29 June 1991 ; CSIROH 2931-02 , 321.8 mm SL, Challenger Plateau , 37°38-42’S , 169°37-48’E , 970-960 m , H. Romero and M. Strauss, FV Kavrai , 15 Apr 1992 ; CSIROH 2931-03 , 280.3 mm SL, same data as CSIRO H 2931-02 ; CSIROH 2931-04 , 204.2 mm SL, same data as CSIRO H 2931-02 ; CSIROH 2931-05 , 265.0 mm SL, same data as CSIRO H 2931-02 ; CSIROH 2931-06 , 278.5 mm SL, same data as CSIRO H 2931-02 ; CSIROH 3138-10 , 244.2 mm SL, Lord Howe Rise , 35°22-26’S , 164°30-43’E , 956-929 m , H. Romero, FV Ivan Golubets , 17 June 1992 ; CSIROH 6042-02 , 127.4 mm SL, Lord Howe Rise , 32°38-41’S , 162°33’E , 855-874 m , P. Last et al., RV Tangaroa , 25 May 2003 ; CSIROH 6043-17 , 298.1 mm SL, Lord Howe Rise , 32°39-42’S , 162°33-34’E , 850-872 m , P. Last et al., RV Tangaroa , 25 May 2003 ; CSIROH 6043-18 , 326.6 mm SL, same data as CSIRO H 6043-17 ; CSIROH 886-1 , 292.4 mm SL, east of St Patricks Head , Tasmania , 41°22-24’S , 148°43-48’E , 890-1052 m , CSIRO staff, FRV Soela , 7 June 1987 ; CSIROT 1579-1 , 196.5 mm SL, east of St. Patricks Head , Tasmania , 41°35-38’S , 148°40-42’E , 900-950 m , RV Challenger , 22 Apr. 1982 ; CSIROT 648 , 299.8 mm SL, east of Long Point , Tasmania , 41°46’S , 148°37’E , 830-850 m , R. Green, RV Bluefin , 18 May 1982 . Great Australian Bight:CSIROT 528 , 284.4 mm SL, South Australia , 34°29- 34’S , 132°15’E , 900-952 m , K. Evans, FV Petuna Endeavour , 8 May 1983 ; CSIROT 647 , 323.7 mm SL, southwest of King Island , Tasmania , 40°44-47’S , 143°30-32’E , 920-927 m , M. Wilson, RV Challenger , 16 Dec. 1981 ; CSIROT 650 , 254.8 mm SL, southwest of King Island , Tasmania , 40°25-29’S , 143°19-21’E , 945-952 , M. Wilson, RV Challenger , 10 Jan. 1982 ; CSIROT 1868-1 , 335.6 mm SL, west coast of Tasmania, 900 m , 5 June 1982 ; CSIROH 4107-01 , 289.6 mm SL, west of South West Cape , Tasmania , 43°34’S , 145°45’E , 920 m , FV Petuna Explorer , 6 Nov. 1995 . Southeastern Indian Ocean:CSIROH 2616-01 , 299.7 mm SL, west of Mandurah , Western Australia , 32°38-40’S , 114°26-28’E , 880-960 m , P. Last, FRV Southern Surveyor , 14 Feb. 1991 ; CSIROH 3007-05 , 251.2 mm SL, southwest of Albany , Western Australia , 35°26,S , 117°25’E , 843 m , A. Williams, FV Akebono-maru , 22 Dec. 1989 ; CSIROH 3007-18 , 262.9 mm SL, same data as CSIRO H 3007-05 ; CSIROH 3102-02 , 285.8 mm SL, southwest of Cape Leeuwin , Western Australia , 35°03’S , 114°55’E , 785-800 m , A. Grice and F. Ewing, FV Star of Crimea , 22 May 1992 ; CSIROH 3108-01 , 223.9 mm SL, southwest of Cape Leeuwin , Western Australia , 35°02’S , 114°46’E , 1000-1250 m , A. Grice and F. Ewing, FV Star of Crimea , 12 June 1992 ; CSIROH 3174-15 , 216.7 mm SL, West Australian Ridge (Broken Ridge) , 31°36’S , 95°02’E , 1050 m , F. Ewing and G. Hutley, FV Star of Crimea , 30 June 1992 ; CSIROH 3174-16 , 224.3 mm SL, same data as CSIRO H 3174-15 ; CSIROH 3174-17 , 208.1 mm SL, same data as CSIRO H 3174-15 . Southwestern Indian Ocean:CSIROH 5799-01 , 232.5 mm SL, South-West Indian Ridge , 39°01’S , 46°01’E , 600-820 m , R. Ashworth and T. Cantwell, FV Southern Champion , 5 June 2000 .

  • Hiroyuki Motomura, Peter R. Last, Gordon K. Yearsley (2007): Two new species of the scorpionfish genus Trachyscorpia (Sebastidae: Sebastolobinae) from the southern Indo-West Pacific, with comments on the distribution of T. eschmeyeri. Zootaxa 1466, 19-34: 20-20, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1396EA67-3778-4FF3-91FE-8ECA3D1BDD0B
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Biology

Found on the continental shelf and continental slope (Ref. 75154).
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Distribution

Southeast Atlantic: Cape to St. Helena Bay in South Africa. Southwest Pacific: New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
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Souther Australia, New Zealand, South Africa.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8 - 9; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 5
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Size

Max. size

35.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4313))
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Diagnostic Description

Reddish in color (Ref. 4313). Confused with Helicolenus dactylopterus, but easily distinguished by shape of caudal fin and pectoral fin and number of rays in dorsal fin (Ref. 36731).
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 450 - 1025 m (Ref. 4313)
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Depth range based on 826 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 647 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 450 - 1370.5
  Temperature range (°C): 3.507 - 9.710
  Nitrate (umol/L): 18.732 - 36.635
  Salinity (PPS): 34.336 - 34.789
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.743 - 5.515
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.338 - 2.449
  Silicate (umol/l): 8.547 - 58.146

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 450 - 1370.5

Temperature range (°C): 3.507 - 9.710

Nitrate (umol/L): 18.732 - 36.635

Salinity (PPS): 34.336 - 34.789

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.743 - 5.515

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.338 - 2.449

Silicate (umol/l): 8.547 - 58.146
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental shelf and continental slope (Ref. 75154). Feeds on benthic crustaceans (Ref. 58748).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Trachyscorpia eschmeyeri

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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