Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults are found in littoral zone, near rocks and eel-grass beds (Ref. 3666). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Males build dish shaped nests and guard the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

In the eastern Atlantic, this species is present from Portugal to northern Morocco. In the Mediterranean Sea, it is present throughout most of the area, including Cyprus (Golani et al. 2006), although it has not been recorded from Israel (Golani et al. 2006), Lebanon or Syria (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008). This species is also found in the western Black Sea (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).
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Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, including adjacent coasts of Portugal to Morocco (eastern Atlantic).
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Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Morocco, and the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 470 mm SL
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Max. size

47.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742))
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in seagrass beds and around rocky reefs, particularly algal-covered rocks. It is generally solitary or found living in pairs, but it may also be found living in small groups (Golani et al. 2006).

It feeds mainly on crustaceans and small fishes. It displays very distinct sexual dimorphism, and is probably a protogynous hermaphrodite. The adhesive demersal eggs are laid in vegetated habitats (Golani et al. 2006).

This species is similar in demography with Notolbarus fucicola which has a generation length of about 7.5 years based on age at fist maturity of 2.5 years in southern New Zealand (H. Choat and D. Pollard pers comm. 2009). Generation length for this species is estimated to be approximately 8.5 years based on a longevity of 20 years and age of first maturity of three years.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine
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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5.5 - 57
  Temperature range (°C): 16.269 - 16.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.016 - 1.692
  Salinity (PPS): 37.517 - 37.969
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.382 - 5.393
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.098 - 0.229
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.778 - 2.712

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5.5 - 57

Temperature range (°C): 16.269 - 16.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.016 - 1.692

Salinity (PPS): 37.517 - 37.969

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.382 - 5.393

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.098 - 0.229

Silicate (umol/l): 1.778 - 2.712
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Found in littoral zone, near rocks and eel-grass beds (Ref. 3666).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Males build dish shaped nests and guard the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Labrus viridis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AAAGATATTGGCACCCTTTATCTCGTATTTGGCGCTTGAGCCGGAATGGTAGGCACTGCTTTA---AGTTTGCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTTAGCCAACCAGGGGCCCTCCTCGGAGAT---GACCAAATTTATAACGTAATCGTCACGGCACATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATCGGGGGCTTCGGGAACTGACTCATCCCCCTAATG---ATTGGGGCTCCCGATATGGCTTTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCTCCCTCCTTCCTCCTCCTCCTCGCCTCTTCTGGGGTAGAAGCCGGAGCAGGCACTGGATGAACAGTATACCCCCCTCTAGCAGGAAACCTGGCCCACGCGGGAGCATCCGTTGATCTC---ACTATCTTTTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGTATCTCTTCAATTTTAGGCGCTATTAATTTTATTACAACCATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATCTCACAATATCAGACCCCTCTATTTGTATGATCCGTGCTGATCACCGCCGTCCTGCTCCTCCTCTCACTTCCTGTTCTTGCAGCT---GGTATCACGATGCTCCTCACAGATCGCAACCTTAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCTGGAGGCGGAGATCCTATTCTTTACCAACACCTGTTCTGATTTTTTGGTCAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Labrus viridis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A4ad

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Pollard, D. & Choat, J.H.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Liu, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Mediterranean, although it is now less common in some areas. Its population has suffered serious declines in the northwestern Mediterranean due to spearfishing for sport and food. There have also been severe declines in other parts of its range (e.g., in Tunisia). Habitat degradation may also be a major threat to this species. There have been local population declines of 50–80% in at least a third of its range in the western Mediterranean over the past 15 years, although there is no information on current declines in the eastern portion of its range even though fishing is a threat throughout its range. Without immediate implementation of conservation measures, this trend in decline is predicted to continue into the future and throughout the eastern parts of the species range. Overall decline is therefore expected to be at least 30% over three generation lengths (26 years). This species is listed as Vulnerable.
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Population

Population
This is a widespread but now relatively uncommon species. In the northwestern part of the Mediterranean Sea the population is continuing to decline, and the situation in the rest of the area is unknown (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008). Declines in the numbers of large specimens have occurred over the past 10 to 20 years due to spearfishing in Italy (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008), and most likely also in France and Spain. The population decline in France has been around 80%, and in Tunisia around 50% (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008). However, although this species may now be less commonly found in the western Mediterranean Sea, it is not known whether similar declines may have also occurred in other parts of the Mediterranean Sea (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).

Based on overall declines of 50-80% in at least a third of its range in the western Mediterranean, overall population declines since at least the 1990s are inferred to be more than 30% and are predicted to continue into the future and in the eastern portion of its range.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is caught in local artisanal fisheries in Italy and Tunisia. Spearfishing in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea is also a major threat, and there are some concerns about the spread of this sport throughout the whole Mediterranean Sea.

Habitat degradation, and more specifically seagrass bed reduction, is also a threat to this species (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).
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Vulnerable (VU) (A4ad)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range. The regulation of spearfishing of this species is recommended. Further research should also be conducted to determine the population trends of this species in the western Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere in its range.
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Wikipedia

Labrus viridis

Labrus viridis, the green wrasse, is a species of wrasse native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Portugal to Morocco, as well as through the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. This species is found around rocky reefs amongst the rocks or in eelgrass beds. It can reach 47 cm (19 in) in standard length, though most do not exceed 37.5 cm (14.8 in).[2] It is one of several species called green wrasse.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pollard, D. & Choat, J.H. 2010. Labrus viridis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 November 2013.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Labrus viridis" in FishBase. August 2013 version.


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