Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Feeds on worms, small crustaceans and plants. In captivity, spawning takes place among plants and eggs usually hatch in 20 to 24 hours (Ref. 7020). Maximum length reported to reach 4.5 cm TL (Ref. 7020). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539).
  • Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. … 2003 Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 38376)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38376&speccode=10622 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species appears to be relatively common around Iquitos and probably in another localities in the Peruvian Amazon. The species apparently also occurs in Colombia and Brazil, although in the latter the similar-looking Hemigrammus haraldi also occurs and misidentification of collections may have been made (Lima pers. comm. 2007).
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South America: upper Amazon River basin.
  • Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. … 2003 Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 38376)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38376&speccode=10622 External link.
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Upper Amazon River basin, Peru.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 45 mm ---
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Max. size

3.3 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 38376))
  • Lima, F.C.T., L.R. Malabarba, P.A. Buckup, J.F. Pezzi da Silva, R.P. Vari, A. Harold, R. Benine, O.T. Oyakawa, C.S. Pavanelli, N.A. Menezes, C.A.S. Lucena, M.C.S.L. Malabarba, Z.M.S. Lucena, R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, C. Moreira et al. … 2003 Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. p. 106-168. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 38376)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=38376&speccode=10622 External link.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
H. pulcher is a benthopelagic (ecological region at the lowest level of water body) species. Lives in large streams and rivers, and probably associated flood plains. A generalist mid-water swimmer, feeding on insects, plant matter, and the like.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater; pH range: 5.0 - 6.0; dH range: 5 - 12
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on worms, small crustaceans and plants.
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Diseases and Parasites

White spot Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Bacterial Infections (general). Bacterial diseases
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hemigrammus pulcher

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Reis, R & Lima, F.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)

Contributor/s

Justification
Assessed as Least Concern due to its sizeable distribution and the lack of any known major widespread threats.
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Population

Population
This species has a stable population trend at present.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
It is harvested for the aquarium trade, but probably not as intensively in a way that could jeopardize natural populations. There are no other meaningful impacts are known to affect the species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures in place and research into the population trends are required.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: highly commercial
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Wikipedia

Hemigrammus pulcher

Hemigrammus pulcher is a semi-popular aquarium species, also known as the pretty tetra, garnet tetra or black wedge tetra.[1] In the wild, the species is found near Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon, and probably also in Brazil and Colombia.[1]

In captivity[edit]

Breeding is difficult, as parents must be prevented from eating their own eggs, and require soft, acidic water. Eggs usually hatch within 20–24 hours. The pretty tetra will accept most high quality flake foods. They do best in multiples of threes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c R. Reis & F. Lima (2007). "Hemigrammus pulcher". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
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