Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits middle course of large, deep rivers with slow current (Ref. 59043). Also occurs in water bodies on low-lying plains, with little current. Feeds on invertebrates and plants (Ref. 26100) and detritus (Ref. 59043). Threatened by habitat destruction, pollution and introduction of other species (Ref. 26100). Size reaches up to about 40 cm SL (Ref. 59043).
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Distribution

Range Description

It is restricted to the Guadiana river basin in Portugal and Spain. It occurs also in a small reach of the Tajo river, where it is probably introduced there.
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Europe: Guadiana drainage in Spain & Portugal; records from the middle Tago in Spain need verification (Ref. 59043). Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna) (Ref. 6376).
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Spain and Portugal.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

40.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043))
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnosed from other species of Barbus and Luciobarbus in Iberian Peninsula by having the following characters: lateral line with 45-50 + 3 scales; last simple ray spinous, strong, serrated posteriorly along most of its length; posterior edge of dorsal strongly concave, upper part about perpendicular to dorsal profile when fin is stretched; head length 22-27% SL; lower lip thin, lacking median lobe or pad; and lower jaw tip exposed, not covered by lower lip (Ref. 59043).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a small size barbel (<260 mm). It lives in the middle and lower reaches of rivers with deep and slow water. It is absent from the headwaters. It can be found also within reservoirs.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on plants and invertebrates (Ref. 26100).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2ce+3ce

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Crivelli, A.J.

Reviewer/s
Carmona, J. & Darwall, W. (Mediterranean Workshop, Dec. 2004)

Contributor/s

Justification
It is estimated that the population of B. microcephalus has declined by at least 30% in the past 10 years and it is suspected to decline by the same amount in the next 10 years (Carmona, J. pers comm). The population is declining in all of its range due to dam construction (a current and future threat in Spain and Portugal: for example a dam is planned near Alquedi (Carmona, J. pers comm)), water extraction and introduced species.

History
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1994
    Rare
    (Groombridge 1994)
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Population

Population
Declining.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Water pollution and extraction. Habitat alteration (dams) and introductions of exotic fish species.
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Vulnerable (VU) (A2ce+3ce)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Listed in the Appendix III of the Bern Convention, and Annex V of the European Union Habitats Directive as B. capito.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

gamefish: yes
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Wikipedia

Luciobarbus microcephalus

Luciobarbus microcephalus is a ray-finned fish species in the family Cyprinidae. It is here placed in Luciobarbus following the IUCN, but that genus is very closely related to the other typical barbels and perhaps better considered a mere subgenus of Barbus.[1]

This small barbel is less than 26 cm (10 in) long when fully grown. It is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, where it occurs in the middle and lower Guadiana River's drainage basin in both Portugal and Spain. A presumably introduced population is found in a small stretch of the Tajo. Its natural habitats are deep and slow rivers and reservoirs.[2]

Its numbers are declining across its rather small range, and it is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN. By 2020 its stocks will probably number less than half of what they were at the turn of the millennium. The main cause of its decline is unsustainable use of water resources, such as water pollution, extraction for agriculture and damming. Certain planned damming projects – e.g. one near Alquedi[3] – are likely to severely impact the species' stocks. Introduced exotic fishes pose an additional problem.[2]

L. microcephalus is listed in Annex V of the European Union's Habitats Directive to allow its taking from the wild to be legally restricted, and – as Barbus capito, which actually refers to its Central Asian relative, the Bulatmai Barbel – as Protected Species in Appendix III of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats.[2]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Crivelli (2006), de Graaf et al. (2007), Almodóvar et al. (2008)
  2. ^ a b c Crivelli (2006)
  3. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/2580/0

References

  • Almodóvar, Ana; Nicola, Graciela G. & Elvira, Benigno (2008): Natural hybridization of Barbus bocagei x Barbus comizo (Cyprinidae) in Tagus River basin, central Spain [English with French abstract]. Cybium 32(2): 99-102. PDF fulltext
  • Crivelli, A.J. (2006). Luciobarbus microcephalus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  • de Graaf, Martin; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Samallo, Johannis & Sibbing, Ferdinand A. (2007): Evolutionary origin of Lake Tana's (Ethiopia) small Barbus species: indications of rapid ecological divergence and speciation. Anim. Biol. 57(1): 39-48. doi:10.1163/157075607780002069 (HTML abstract)
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