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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits coastal waters and enters the lower reaches of rivers and lagoons (Ref. 4833). Occurs on sand and mudflats, usually in estuaries (Ref. 48637). Usually found around the mouths of rivers or in brackish mangrove estuaries and sometimes penetrates fresh water, but is never found more than a few km from the sea (Ref. 2847, 44894). Often in schools and sometimes swims up freshwater streams (Ref. 48637). Considered a delicacy in Japan (Ref. 12484).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Admiralty Islands, New Britain and Trobiand Islands, north to China, south to northern Australia.
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Indo-West Pacific: occasoinally in fresh watrer.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 11; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 8 - 10
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Size

Maximum size: 330 mm TL
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Max. size

38.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs in coastal waters and enters the lower reaches of rivers and lagoons (Ref. 4833).
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Body covered with prickles (Ref. 559).Description: Characterized by having a maximum body depth 2.6-3.0 in SL; eye diameter 3.0-4.3 in head length; snout 2.2-2.4 in head length; evenly arched dorsal profile of body; more or less flat interorbital space; round depression in front of each eye, nasal organ, surrounded by low fleshy rim produced into short triangular flap on anterior and posterior edge; smooth skin except patches of spinules on back, throat and belly; truncate to slightly rounded caudal fin (Ref. 90102).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; anadromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 5 m (Ref. 90102)
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Depth range based on 37 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 43
  Temperature range (°C): 26.503 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 1.161
  Salinity (PPS): 34.105 - 35.100
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.474 - 4.627
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.254
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.579 - 3.468

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 43

Temperature range (°C): 26.503 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 1.161

Salinity (PPS): 34.105 - 35.100

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.474 - 4.627

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.254

Silicate (umol/l): 1.579 - 3.468
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Anadromous. Fish that ascend rivers to spawn, as salmon and hilsa do. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Also Ref. 58652.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chelonodon patoca

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGCTGATTTTTCTCAACCAACCATAAAGACATTGGCACCCTGTATCTAGTATTCGGTGCCTGAGCTGGAATAGTGGGGACCGCCCTA---AGTCTCCTCATTCGGGCTGAACTCTGCCAACCGGGAGCGCTCCTAGGCGAC---GATCAGATTTACAATGTGATCGTCACAGCCCATGCATTTGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAGTCATGATCGGCGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTAATCCCTCTTATA---ATTGGGGCCCCTGACATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAACAATATAAGTTTCTGACTATTGCCCCCCTCCTTCCTTCTTCTCCTAGCTTCTTCCGGCGTAGAAGCGGGGGCCGGCACAGGCTGAACCGTCTATCCTCCGCTAGCAGGCAACCTAGCCCACGCAGGCGCATCCGTCGACCTC---ACCATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTAGCAGGTGTTTCATCAATCCTAGGCGCTATTAACTTCATCACCACAATCATTAACATAAAACCCCCTGCTATCTCCCAGTACCAAACCCCTCTCTTCGTATGGGCCGTTCTAATCACCGCCATCCTTCTTCTTTTATCCCTACCCGTCCTCGCAGCA---GGCATTACAATGCTCCTTACGGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCAGGCGGAGGTGATCCCATCCTCTACCAGCACTTATTCTGATTCTTCGGACACCCAGAAGTGTACATTTTAATTCTTCCTGGATTTGGAATAATCTCACACATCGTCACTTATTACGCCGGTAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGCTACATGGGCATGGTTTGAGCCATAATAGCCATCGGTCTACTAGGCTTCATCGTCTGAGCACACCACATGTTTACAGTAGGAATAGATGTTGACACTCGGGCCTACTTCACATCCGCTACAATGATCATCGCCATCCCAACTGGCGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTA---GCCACTCTTCACGGCGGC---TCTATCAAATGAGACGCCCCCATACTCTGAGCCCTGGGCTTTATCTTCCTCTTCACCGTAGGCGGACTAACTGGCATTATTCTAGCCAATTCTTCCCTAGACGTAGTCCTACACGACACCTACTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTACGTC---CTCTCAATAGGGGCTGTCTTTGCCATTATAGCAGCTTTCGTACATTGATTCCCACTCTTCTCGGGCTACACCCTTCACAGCACTTGGACAAAACTGCATTTTGGAGTAATATTTGCAGGCGTTAATTTAACCTTCTTCCCCCAACACTTCCTAGGACTTGCCGGAATACCACGA---CGGTATTCAGACTATCCAGACGCCTACACA---CTATGAAACACTGTCTCATCCTTTGGCTCCCTAGTCTCACTAGTCGCAGTTATCATATTCCTTTATATCCTCTGAGAAGCATTCGCTGCCAAGCGTGAAGTT---ATATCAGTTGAACTAACTTCTACAAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chelonodon patoca

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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