endemic to a single state or province
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) Range includes the Nueces River drainage, Edwards Plateau, Texas (Page and Burr 2011). MtDNA data (Richardson and Gold 1995) indicate that C. lepida occurs in the Frio and Sabinal rivers (Nueces River system) and that an undescribed species occurs in the Nueces River proper.
Length: 6 cm
Catalog Number: USNM 126
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Dry Osteological Specimen
Collector(s): C. Kennerly
Locality: Rio Frio, Texas., Uvalde County, Texas, United States, North America
Habitat and Ecology
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Comments: Habitat includes clear, cool, springs and spring-fed headwater creeks (Mayden 1989), usually over gravel (Page and Burr 2011).
Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Comments: This species is represented by a small number of occurrences; apparently it occurs in only two rivers (Frio and Sabinal).
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Small range in the spring-fed Frio and Sabinal rivers in central Texas; abundance has declined appreciably over the past two decades; threatened by habitat alteration.
Abundance has declined appreciably since 1975-1980, especially in the Sabinal River (Richardson and Gold 1995).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably still declining.
Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely still declining.
Comments: Threatened by habitat alteration resulting from dewatering, overgrazing by cattle, and possible stream pollution from pesticides and other agricultural chemicals (Richardson and Gold 1995).
This species would benefit from habitat restoration, improved habitat protection and management, species management, and better information on distribution, abundance, population trend, and threats.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Removed from genus Notropis and placed in genus (formerly subgenus) Cyprinella by Mayden (1989); this change was adopted in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991). Formerly included in C. lutrensis (see Matthews 1987), with which lepida has hybridized, but only after dredging operations had started in the Guadalupe River (Mayden 1989). Natural hybridization with C. venusta has been reported.
Richardson and Gold (1995) examined restriction site variation of mtDNA and found that C. lepida in the Frio and Sabinal rivers is distinct from C. lepida in the Nueces River. They concluded that the population in the Nueces River is not the same species as that represented in the Frio and Sabinal rivers. Acknowledging a potentially confusing nomenclatural problem, they referred to the Frio-Sabinal populations as C. lepida and the Nueces population as Cyprinella sp. The problem is that although C. lepida was described from Frio River samples, almost all of the morphological information reported under the name C. lepida is from fishes from the Nueces River. Broughton and Gold (2000) examined mtDNA variation in Cyprinella and found that this species was not monophyletic and thus may represent multiple species.
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