Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Forms schools (Ref. 35237). Found over mud or sandy mud bottoms near mouths of rivers. Juveniles are restricted to brackish and fresh waters. Feeds on shrimps and fishes. Important food fish (Ref. 3702).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

Cynoscion acoupa is found in the Western Atlantic from southeast Brazil to Panama. It is most common around northeastern South America (N.L. Chao pers. comm. 2009).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic: Panama to Brazil.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic: Panama to Argentina.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 22; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 7 - 9
  • Chao, N.L. 2003 Scianidae. Croakers. p. 1583-1653. In K.E. Carpenter (ed.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals. (Ref. 51721)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=51721&speccode=405 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 1090 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

110 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 17.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Body nearly uniform silvery, dark greenish above. Without conspicuous spots on side but with diffuse dark areas along base of dorsal fin and on margin of spinous dorsal fin, ventral side of head, lower margin of pectoral, pelvic, and caudal fins often yellowish orange. Inside of opercle dusky. Mouth large, oblique. Lower jaw slightly projecting. Upper jaw with a pair of large canine-like teeth at tip. Lower jaw with a row of enlarged inner-row teeth, gradually increasing in size posteriorly. Chin without barbels or pores. Snout with 2 marginal pores. Pectoral fins about equal in length to pelvic fins. Gas bladder with a pair of long, straight, horn-like appendages. Sagitta earstone thin and elongate. Soft portion of dorsal fin unscaled except 2 or 3 rows of small scales along its base (Ref 51271).
  • Chao, N.L. 2003 Scianidae. Croakers. p. 1583-1653. In K.E. Carpenter (ed.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals. (Ref. 51721)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=51721&speccode=405 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Paratype for Cynoscion maracaiboensis
Catalog Number: USNM 121744
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): L. Schultz
Year Collected: 1942
Locality: Venez: Lago Maracaibo 2 mi. Off Lagunillas, Venezuela, South America
  • Paratype:
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Paratype for Cynoscion maracaiboensis
Catalog Number: USNM 121743
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): L. Schultz
Year Collected: 1942
Locality: Venez: Rio Agua Caliente 2 To 3 Kms. Above Lago Maracaibo, Venezuela, South America
  • Paratype:
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Holotype for Cynoscion maracaiboensis
Catalog Number: USNM 121742
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): L. Schultz
Year Collected: 1942
Locality: Venez: Rio Agua Caliente 2 To 3 Kms. Above Lago Maracaibo, Venezuela, South America
  • Holotype:
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Cynoscion acoupa is a coastal, demersal, and brackish water species that forms schools. It is commonly found over mud or sandy mud bottoms near mouths of rivers. Juveniles are restricted to brackish and fresh waters and shelter in mangrove swamps as nursery grounds. Cynoscion acoupa feeds on shrimps and fishes (FAO 2002). It is an important food fish (Chao 2003).

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 0 - 20m.
Recorded at 20 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range ? - 20 m (Ref. 3702)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.3 - 20
  Temperature range (°C): 26.753 - 26.753
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.914 - 0.914
  Salinity (PPS): 35.759 - 35.759
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.322 - 4.322
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.204 - 0.204
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.162 - 4.162

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.3 - 20
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cynoscion acoupa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cynoscion acoupa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Chao, N.L., McEachran, J. & Williams, J.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.

Justification
Cynoscion acoupa has been assessed as Least Concern. Whilst it is an important commercial species, it uses a variety of estuarine habitats as nursery grounds and therefore mangrove degradation in the region is not thought to be significantly impacting this species. As this is a large-sized commercial species, continued monitoring of its fisheries is needed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Cynoscion acoupa is locally abundant around northeastern South America (N.L. Chao pers. comm. 2009).

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Cynoscion acoupa is an important commercial species, but there has been no apparent reduction in population size over the last 10 years (N.L. Chao pers. comm. 2009). Juveniles are associated with mangrove habitats, however they also associate with soft-bottoms near river mouths. Therefore at present, mangrove degradation occurring in this region is not considered a major threat to this species (N.L. Chao pers. comm. 2009).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Least Concern (LC)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Cynoscion acoupa. However, its distribution may coincide with a number of marine protected areas.

Due to the large size and commercial importance of this species, continued monitoring of its harvest levels and population numbers is needed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=4537&speccode=1255 External link.
  • Keith, P., P.-Y. Le Bail and P. Planquette 2000 Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 2, Fascicule I: Batrachoidiformes, Mugiliformes, Beloniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Synbranchiformes, Perciformes, Pleuronectiformes, Tetraodontiformes. Collection Patrimoines Naturels 43(I): 286p. Paris: Publications scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. (Ref. 35237)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=35237&speccode=969 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Acoupa weakfish

The acoupa weakfish, Cynoscion acoupa, is a croaker of the family Sciaenidae, found in the western Atlantic from Panama to Argentina, at depths down to 20 m. Its length is up to 1.1 m.

References

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!