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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

High-oceanic, epipelagic to mesopelagic, found in 375-750 m during the day and near the surface to 125 m at night (Ref. 4066, 58302). Adults feed on zooplankton (Ref. 9835). Caudal glands develop in both sexes from about 1.9 cm (Ref. 4775). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 31442).
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Distribution

Canada to Brazil
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Circumglobal in tropical and temperate waters, but with a distinct equatorial gap in the Pacific (Ref. 9835). Western Atlantic: Canada to Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Mauritania and from Liberia to Namibia (absent in Mauritanian Upwelling Region). Indian and Pacific: confined to southern equatorial water masses, extending to 50°N and 50°S in western boundary currents. South China Sea (Ref.74511).
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Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Mascarenes, Hawaiian Islands).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12 - 14; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 16 - 19; Vertebrae: 33 - 35
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Size

Maximum size: 39 mm SL
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Max. size

3.9 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479)); max. reported age: 1 years (Ref. 4882)
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Type Information

Paratype for Benthosema suborbitale
Catalog Number: USNM 74662
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Omai Saki Light, N. 29.5 degrees E., 41 miles. (Off Omai Saki Light (20 to 40 miles distant))., Honshu, Japan, Pacific
Depth (m): 1679
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Gilbert, C. H. 1913. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum. 6 (2): 82.
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Paratype for Benthosema suborbitale
Catalog Number: USNM 74661
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Tsurikake Saki Light, S. 86 degrees E., 11.7 miles. (10 to 30 miles SW of Koshika Islands, Eastern Sea)., Japan, East China Sea, Pacific
Depth (m): 549 to 794
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Gilbert, C. H. 1913. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum. 6 (2): 82.
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Cotype for Benthosema suborbitale
Catalog Number: USNM 74500
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Kusakuki Jima, N. 10 degrees E., 17.5 miles. (About 90 miles WSW of Kagoshima Gulf, Eastern Sea)., Japan, East China Sea, Pacific
Depth (m): 549 to 805
Vessel: Albatross
  • Cotype: Gilbert, C. H. 1913. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum. 6 (2): 82.
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Type for Benthosema suborbitale
Catalog Number: USNM 74473
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Ose Saki, S. 85.5 degrees E., 7.7 miles. (In Suruga Gulf, Japan)., Honshu, Japan, Suruga Bay, Pacific
Depth (m): 549
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type: Gilbert, C. H. 1913. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum. 6 (2): 82.
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Occasionally found in Canadian Atlantic waters. Found at depths of 50- 2500 m.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 50 - 2500 m (Ref. 26165), usually 500 - 600 m (Ref. 4775)
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Depth range based on 315 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 293 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 4300
  Temperature range (°C): 1.823 - 25.900
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.122 - 38.897
  Salinity (PPS): 34.324 - 37.096
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.958 - 5.961
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.028 - 2.777
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.798 - 141.240

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 4300

Temperature range (°C): 1.823 - 25.900

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.122 - 38.897

Salinity (PPS): 34.324 - 37.096

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.958 - 5.961

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.028 - 2.777

Silicate (umol/l): 0.798 - 141.240
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 50 - 2500m.
From 50 to 2500 meters.

Habitat: bathypelagic.
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

High-oceanic, epipelagic to mesopelagic, found in 375-750 m during the day and near the surface to 125 m at night. Adults feed on zooplankton.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on zooplankton
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Life Cycle

Oviparous (Ref. 31442).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Benthosema suborbitale

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Disclaimer

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