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BiologyAn inshore species of the continental and insular shelves, commonly inhabiting shallow waters close inshore, near the surf line and along beaches (Ref. 244). May also be found in shallow bays and estuaries, as well as off the open coast but not ascending rivers (Ref. 9997). Predominantly demersal but found throughout the water column (Ref. 6871). Feeds on pelagic and demersal bony fishes, sharks and rays, squid, shrimps, cuttlefish, octopi, lobsters, gastropods and mammalian carrion (Ref. 5578, 9997). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Potentially dangerous but not recorded in shark attacks to date (Ref. 9997). Utilized fresh and dried-salted for human consumption (Ref. 9997).