Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on coral reefs of inshore waters (Ref. 75154). Live openly on muddy or silty substrates (Ref. 48635). Benthic species (Ref. 75154). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Males carry the eggs in their brood pouches (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Andaman Sea to Vanuatu.
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Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea to Vanuatu.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal soft rays (total): 29 - 35; Analsoft rays: 3
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Size

Maximum size: 90 mm SL
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Max. size

9.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5316))
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Diagnostic Description

Head raised with ridge from behind eyes. Indistinct dark bars below head (Ref. 48635).Description: Characterized by generally brownish color; 10 caudal rays; rings 14 - 16 + 39 - 42; discontinuous superior trunk and tail ridges; straight lateral trunk ridge, ends near anal ring; continuous inferior trunk and tail ridges; length of snout 2.6-2.9 in head length (Ref. 90102).
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Head raised with ridge from behind eyes. Indistinct dark bars below head (Ref. 48635).Description: Characterized by generally brownish color; 10 caudal rays; rings 14 - 16 + 39 - 42; discontinuous superior trunk and tail ridges; straight lateral trunk ridge, ends near anal ring; continuous inferior trunk and tail ridges; length of snout 2.6-2.9 in head length (Ref 90102).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 15 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 5.35
  Temperature range (°C): 26.573 - 29.325
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.190
  Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.063
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.472 - 4.744
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 0.327
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.141 - 4.452

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 5.35

Temperature range (°C): 26.573 - 29.325

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.190

Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.063

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.472 - 4.744

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 0.327

Silicate (umol/l): 1.141 - 4.452
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 3 - 25 m (Ref. 48635)
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Depth range based on 15 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 5.35
  Temperature range (°C): 26.573 - 29.325
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.190
  Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.063
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.472 - 4.744
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 0.327
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.141 - 4.452

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 5.35

Temperature range (°C): 26.573 - 29.325

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.190

Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.063

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.472 - 4.744

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 0.327

Silicate (umol/l): 1.141 - 4.452
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Disclaimer

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