Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on coral reefs of inshore waters (Ref. 75154). Live openly on muddy or silty substrates (Ref. 48635). Benthic species (Ref. 75154). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Males carry the eggs in their brood pouches (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Andaman Sea to Vanuatu.
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Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea to Vanuatu.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal soft rays (total): 2935
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Size

Maximum size: 90 mm SL
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Max. size

9.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5316))
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Diagnostic Description

Head raised with ridge from behind eyes. Indistinct dark bars below head (Ref. 48635).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 3 - 25 m (Ref. 48635)
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Depth range based on 15 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 5.35
  Temperature range (°C): 26.573 - 29.325
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.190
  Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.063
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.472 - 4.744
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 0.327
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.141 - 4.452

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 5.35

Temperature range (°C): 26.573 - 29.325

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.054 - 0.190

Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.063

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.472 - 4.744

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.143 - 0.327

Silicate (umol/l): 1.141 - 4.452
 
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Disclaimer

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