Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: sand-perch (English), camotillo (Espanol), menta (Espanol), serrano (Espanol)
 
Diplectrum maximum Hildebrand, 1946

Greater sand-perch,     Torpedo sand-perch

Body elongate, moderately compressed; angle of preopercle a narrow, round-pointed bony spur with 4-8 large spines, width of spur < height of rest of rear border of preopercle; snout and between eyes scaleless; lateral line complete; scales moderately small, rough; lower jaw strongly projecting, tip joins forehead profile; 17-21 gill rakers; dorsal X, 12; anal III, 7 rays, 2nd  spine about same length as 3rd; tail concave; 48-50 lateral line scales, 10-13 vertical rows scales on cheek.

Upper 2/3 of head and body dark greybrown, shading to white belly, throat, chest and under mouth; a large dark blue-grey blotch on upper operculum; dorsal with bluegrey basal band, middle red-brown band, outer bluegrey band, margin red brown; tail dark greybrown, anal pale grey, pelvic dark grey; pectoral translucent yellowish brown.



        Size: 37 cm.

        
        Habitat: sand and mud bottoms.

Depth: 1-130 m.

        Central California to the mouth of the Gulf of California to Peru.
   
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Biology

Biology and utilization not known (Ref. 9342).
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. p. 1565-1613. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9342)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9342&speccode=8727 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern California and the mouth of the Gulf of California to northern Peru.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico and Colombia.
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. p. 1565-1613. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9342)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9342&speccode=8727 External link.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 130 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 37.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 370 mm TL
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Max. size

37.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9342))
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. p. 1565-1613. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9342)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9342&speccode=8727 External link.
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Type Information

Paratype for Diplectrum maximum
Catalog Number: USNM 77698
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): R. Coker
Locality: Lobos De Tierra, Lobos de Tierra Island, Peru, Pacific
  • Paratype:
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Type for Diplectrum maximum
Catalog Number: USNM 77624
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): R. Coker
Year Collected: 1907
Locality: Paita, Peru, Piura Region, Peru, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This benthopelagic species inhabits sand and mud substrata to depths of 130m. It feeds on mobile benthic crustaceans and bony fishes.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

benthopelagic; marine
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Depth range based on 10 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 293

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 293
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diplectrum maximum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina, H., Salas, E. & Guzman-Mora, A.G.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific and can be found in deeper waters.There are no major threats known, and no current indication of widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. It is occasionally caught as bycatch in trawls in El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region.
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