Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: sand-perch (English), menta (Espanol), serrano (Espanol), camotillo (Espanol)
 
Diplectrum eumelum Rosenblatt & Johnson, 1974

Orange-spotted sand-perch,     Cheekspot sand-perch,     Pointed sand-perch


Body elongate, moderately compressed; snout blunt, convex tip; 18-22 gill rakers; angle of preopercle a broad, bluntly pointed bony spur with 8-14 long spines, wider than remainder of preopercular margin above; dorsal X,12-13; anal III,7-8; last and first rays of each of dorsal and anal ~ equal length; pelvics under or a little before pectorals; tail concave; snout and between eyes scaleless; scales moderately small, rough; 45-52 lateral line scales, 7-10 vertical rows of scales on cheek.

Upper head and body greybrown, with gold speckling; body sometimes with 5-8 indistinct narrow dark bars; belly white, yellow or light tan; 3-5 orange spots along cheek join orange bar that angles from eye down across preopercular spur, orange spots behind eye and on operculum; inside opercle with large black blotch and yellow area behind it; spiny dorsal dusky, soft part blue with 2 orange stripes changing to spots at rear, fin margin black; tail with vertical rows of small orange spots; large black blotch on tail base; anal white, with yellow marks; pectoral & pelvic yellow.



        Size: 31 cm.

Habitat: soft bottoms.

Depth: 15-100 m.

        Southern Baja and the lower 3/4 of the Gulf of California to northern Peru, the Galapagos.
   
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Biology

Inhabits sandy or muddy bottoms, between 15 and 100 m depth. Probably too small to be of commercial importance.
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. p. 1565-1613. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9342)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9342&speccode=8727 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Baja California and the Gulf of California to northern Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Central Pacific: Gulf of California and southern Baja California, Mexico to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. p. 1565-1613. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9342)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9342&speccode=8727 External link.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 15 (S) - 100 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 31.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 310 mm TL
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Max. size

31.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9342))
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. p. 1565-1613. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9342)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9342&speccode=8727 External link.
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Type Information

Paratype for Diplectrum eumelum Rosenblatt & Johnson
Catalog Number: USNM 216407
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Mexico: Bahia Banderas 6108 B-51, Mexico, Pacific
  • Paratype: Rosenblatt, R. H. & Johnson, G. D. 1974. California Fish and Game. 60 ((4): 185, fig. 1B.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This demersal species inhabits soft sandy or muddy substrata at depths of 15 to 100m. Its diet consists of small crustaceans and bony fishes. This species is a simultaneous hermaphrodite (Franke and Acero, 1995).

In Parque Gorgona, Colombia, 66.0% of the studied individuals were captured between March and June. Although mature specimens were found during the entire year except in October and December, it is suggested that, in Gorgona, the highest reproductive peak occured between the month of June and July (Franke and Acero, 1995).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 15 - 100 m (Ref. 9342)
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. p. 1565-1613. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9342)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9342&speccode=8727 External link.
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Depth range based on 20 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 5 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 21.9 - 157.3
  Temperature range (°C): 14.235 - 16.783
  Nitrate (umol/L): 18.515 - 31.396
  Salinity (PPS): 34.816 - 35.026
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.376 - 2.146
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.498 - 2.256
  Silicate (umol/l): 12.075 - 23.940

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 21.9 - 157.3

Temperature range (°C): 14.235 - 16.783

Nitrate (umol/L): 18.515 - 31.396

Salinity (PPS): 34.816 - 35.026

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.376 - 2.146

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.498 - 2.256

Silicate (umol/l): 12.075 - 23.940
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 15 - 100m.
From 15 to 100 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Inhabits sandy or muddy bottoms, between 15 and 100 m depth. Probably too small to be of commercial importance.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina, H., Salas, E. & Guzman-Mora, A.G.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific. There are no major threats known, and no current indication of widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. It has been captured with low frequency (Borton 1977), although in Parque Corgona, Colombia, it is very abundant and is frequently captured (Franke and Acero 1995).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.This species does not have major commercial interest, likely due to its small size (Franke and Acero, 1995).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution falls within a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. p. 1565-1613. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9342)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9342&speccode=8727 External link.
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