Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits sand or mud bottom. Retreats into shrimp burrows when threatened and at low tide (Ref. 6885). Commonly in estuaries, lagoons and tidal sloughs. Reported to occur in freshwater. Adults feeds on diatoms, green algae, tintinnids, eggs and young of their hosts (Ref. 6885). Positions large food particles near crabs to be torn to smaller pieces (Ref. 6885). Preyed upon by Sebastes, staghorn sculpin, whitespot greenling, and terns (Ref. 6885). Unlike other gobies, it does not build a nest or care for its young (Ref. 2850).
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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The Arrow Goby (Clevelandia ios) is a small estuarine fish found around sand and mud bottoms from British Columbia (Canada) to north-central Baja (Mexico) (Boschung et al. 1983; Eschmeyer et al. 1983). Like most gobies, the Arrow Goby is a small (less than 6 cm), bottom-dwelling fish with its pelvic fins united to form a cuplike sucking disk. The Arrow Goby has a relatively wide gap between its dorsal fins and a large mouth (the jaw extends well beyond the eye) (Eschmeyer et al. 1983). It is often found inhabiting the burrows of several invertebrate species, including the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis (=Callianassa californiensis), the mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis, and the fat innkeeper worm Urechis caupo. The goby uses the burrows as a refuge from predators and desiccation (drying out) at low tides. (Hoffman 1981)

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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Gulf of California and Magdalena Bay, Baja California, north to Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

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Eastern Pacific: Rivers Inlet, British Columbia, Canada to Baja California, Mexico.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
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The Arrow Goby is found from British Columbia (Canada) to north-central Baja (Mexico) (Boschung et al. 1983; Eschmeyer et al. 1983).

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Eastern North Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 4 - 5; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 17; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 14 - 17
  • Hart, J.L. 1973 Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p. (Ref. 6885)
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Like most gobies, the Arrow Goby (Clevelandia ios) is a small (less than 6 cm), bottom-dwelling fish with its pelvic fins united to form a cuplike sucking disk. The Arrow Goby has a relatively wide gap between its dorsal fins and a large mouth (the jaw extends well beyond the eye). The anal fin is relatively long. The general color is olive or tan to gray, speckled with black. Some individuals have white spots on the side and head. The dorsal fins have dotted stripes. Males usually have a black stripe on the anal fin (a stripe is rarely present in females). (Eschmeyer et al. 1983)

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Size

Length: 6 cm

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Maximum size: 57 mm NG
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Max. size

6.4 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 27436)); max. reported age: 3 years (Ref. 72494)
  • Lamb, A. and P. Edgell 1986 Coastal fishes of the Pacific northwest. Harbour Publishing Co. Ltd., B.C., Canada. 224 p. (Ref. 27436)
  • Prasad, R.R. 1948 Life history of Clevelandia ios. Stanford University. (Ref. 72494)
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Diagnostic Description

Caudal rounded.
  • Hart, J.L. 1973 Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p. (Ref. 6885)
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Type Information

Type for Gobiosoma ios
Catalog Number: USNM 29672
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & C. Gilbert
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: Brit Col. Saanich From of Eastern Shore Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, Pacific
  • Type:
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Look Alikes

Lookalikes

The Cheekspot Goby (Ilypnus gilberti) has a dark spot on the gill cover and a shorter jaw than the Arrow Goby (not extending past the eye in the Cheekspot Goby). Young Arrow Gobies may be confused with several other long-jawed gobies. (Eschmeyer et al. 1983)

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Tidal mudflats, sheltered bays, estuaries, lagoons, tidal sloughs. Only occasionally enters low-salinity environments. Burrows into sand or mud at low tide, often sheltered with commensal shrimps or worms (Lee et al. 1980). Scatters eggs (Eschmeyer and Herald 1983).

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Environment

demersal; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 19 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.305 - 6

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.305 - 6
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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The Arrow Goby is found around sand and mud bottoms, ranging from marine to fresh water. It is common in estuaries, lagoons, and tidal sloughs. (Eschmeyer et al. 1983)

Both juveniles and adults are found in large estuaries, where they are benthic (bottom-dwelling) and can be found year-round in muddy burrows of various invertebrates. Larvae are principally estuarine, but may also be found in coastal waters to at least 0.5 km offshore, although generally at less than 18 fathoms deep. (Dawson et al. 2002 and references therein).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits sand or mud bottom. Retreats into shrimp burrows when threatened and at low tide (Ref. 6885). Commonly in estuaries, lagoons and tidal sloughs. Reported to occur in freshwater. Adults feeds on diatoms, green algae, tintinnids, eggs and young of their hosts (Ref. 6885). Positions large food particles near crabs to be torn to smaller pieces (Ref. 6885). Preyed upon by Sebastes, staghorn sculpin, whitespot greenling, and terns (Ref. 6885).
  • Hart, J.L. 1973 Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p. (Ref. 6885)
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Comments: Actively captures small invertebrates from the substrate.

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Associations

The Arrow Goby is a significant component of the diet of non-breeding Long-billed Curlews (Numenius americanus) around Humboldt Bay, California, U.S.A. (Leeman et al. 2001).

The Arrow Goby is often found inhabiting the burrows of several invertebrate species, including the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis (=Callianassa californiensis), the mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis, and the fat innkeeper worm Urechis caupo (an echiuran worm). The goby uses the burrows as a refuge from predators and desiccation (drying out) at low tides. In a study in Coos Bay, Oregon, during the late spring and the summer Arrow Gobies were found in the field in shallow pools with less than 3 cm of water, as well as in occupied and unoccupied N. californiensis burrows. The gobies were found lower intertidally in the spring, were found higher intertidally in the summer, and were not found intertidally in the fall and winter. The presence of N. californiensis may inhibit the presence of Arrow Gobies in the burrow, since the ghost shrimp were often observed chasing the gobies out of the burrows. Field observations indicate that the Arrow Gobiess may be using the N. californiensis burrows as a refuge, but only during the spring and summer. There is some controversy in the literature over where Arrow Goby eggs are laid. Some authors have stated that the nonadhesive eggs are laid in large groups, presumably outside the burrows, with the eggs then sinking into the sediments. However, at least one author has suggested that this goby lays its eggs inside burrows, athough not necessarily in the burrows of N. californiensis. If the eggs survive in areas other than N. californiensis burrows, and the adult Arrow Gobies do not always coinhabit burrows with N. californiensis, then the two species may be facultative associates, as seems likely. However, if the eggs survive only in N. californiensis burrows, then this might be an obligate association. Neotrypaea californiensis clearly provides shelter for the Arrow Goby, but no data are available on whether N. californiensis benefits at all from its association with the goby in this relationship (it likely does not, given that the ghost shrimp often behave aggressively toward the gobies). However, there is also no evidence that the ghost shrimp suffers any harm as a result of its association with the Arrow Goby. Thus, this relationship is likely a commensal one (i.e., one partner--in this case, the goby--benefits and the other partner experiences no significant benefit or harm). (Hoffman 1981)

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Population Biology

MacGinitie (1934) estimated that the density of Clevelandia ios at one site was about 1 per square foot and reported that with a few dips of a net he was able to collect over 500 from a small pool about 3 X 8 feet where they had congregated when the tide was out.

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General Ecology

Abundant.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

In contrast to most gobies, the Arrow Goby does not build a nest or care for its young. Eggs are distributed over a considerable area, with a spawning peak from March to June. The Arrow Goby uses burrows for shelter and can be collected at low tide by digging. (Eschmeyer et al. 1983).

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Life Expectancy

The Arrow Goby is annual in southern California (U.S.A.), but lives 2 to 3 years in Puget Sound, Washington State (U.S.A.) (Dawson et al. 2002 and references therein).

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 3 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Spawning peaks March-June (Eschmeyer and Herald 1983).

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Fecundity of Clevelandia ios has been estimated at around 3 × 102 to 1.2 × 103 eggs, with eggs laid in multiple batches. Reproduction is year-round, peaking in late-winter to early summer. Estimated larval duration is 2 to 4 weeks. (Dawson et al. 2002 and references therein)

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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

The Arrow Goby (Clevelandia ios) prefers a salinity of between 15 and 35 parts per thousand (ppt), but it can tolerate salinities ranging from 0 to 55 ppt (Dawson et al 2002 and references therein).

Clevelandia ios has been shown to contain neurotoxin in its tissues, but this toxin has not been characterized, nor has its specific distribution in the body been determined, and the biological significance of this toxin has not been investigated (Elam and Fuhrman 1977).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Clevelandia ios

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Clevelandia ios

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: public aquariums
  • Newman, L. 1995 Census of fish at the Vancouver aquarium, 1994. Unpublished manuscript. (Ref. 9183)
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Wikipedia

Clevelandia ios

Clevelandia ios, the Arrow goby, is a species of goby native to marine and brackish waters of the Pacific coast of North America from British Columbia to Baja California. This species grows to a length of 6.4 centimetres (2.5 in) SL though most do not exceed 4.2 centimetres (1.7 in) TL. This fish can also be found displayed in public aquaria. This species is the only known member of its genus.[1]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Clevelandia ios" in FishBase. June 2013 version.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Monotypic genus.

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