Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Commercially cultured in Japan (Ref. 6866). From April to May adults feed in fresh water and return to the ocean during the fall (Ref. 12218).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species ascends small coastal rivers of the Russian Federation (Suchan (Partizanskaya), Adzemi, Koppi, Tumnin, Viakhtu, and Tym rivers) and Japan (Ishikari and Teshio rivers of Hokkaido). It is found at sea, throughout the Sea of Okhotsk, in the Sea of Japan as far east as the eastern shore of Hokkaido, Japan, along the Asian coast as far south as Wonsan, North Korea, and to the Bering Strait on the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula (Shmigirilov et al. 2007).

It is currently only known to spawn persistently in the Tumnin River (not further than 100 km upstream from the estuary), where only a single spawning site is known. It has also rarely been found in the Koppi River. This population may be functionally dependent on the Tumnin River or simply ephemeral (Shmigirilov et al. 2007).
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Northwest Pacific: Bering Sea, Tumnin (Datta) river, to northern Japan and Korea. This species was formerly regarded to be a population of Acipenser medirostris (Ref. 6866). International trade restricted (CITES II, since 1.4.98; CMS Appendix II).
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Asian coast of northern Paific Ocean, southern Okhotsk Sea and Japan to Korea.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 33 - 40; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 22 - 30
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Size

Maximum size: 1500 mm TL
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Max. size

150 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 12218))
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Diagnostic Description

Body shields in 5 rows; dorsal shields 7 to 11, lateral 22 to 36 and ventral 10.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Sakhalin Sturgeon spawn in June-July in the Tumnin River and April and May (historically) in the rivers of Hokkaido (Shmigirilov et al. 2007).

Estuaries are thought to be the nursery grounds for the species. They are mainly benthic feeding and feed in higher salinity waters (than Amur and Kaluga which share range), where food resources are more abundant than in temperate coastal watersheds (Shmigirilov et al. 2007).

The species generation length is estimated to be 15 years, with first maturation around 8-10 years (based on similarity to A. medirostris).

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine
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Migration

Anadromous. Fish that ascend rivers to spawn, as salmon and hilsa do. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Eggs are laid from April to August under the substrate in sandy areas (Ref. 12218).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Acipenser mikadoi

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2cde

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Mugue, N.

Reviewer/s
Pourkazemi, M. & Smith, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
The Tumnin River is the only known persistent spawning river for Sakhalin Sturgeon (to 100 km upstream). The species population and habitat is declining due to illegal poaching during the migration run and pollution of habitat from agriculture, oil production and mining is causing a decline in habitat quality. The area of the species spawning grounds is estimated to be more than 10 km² (extent of occurrence (EOO) is over 100 km²). Over the past 45 years (estimated three generations) there has been a massive decline in wild mature individuals, suspected to be more than 80%. It was common in the fish markets of Japan in the 1950s and now only a few specimens are found per year.

History
  • 1996
    Endangered
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Population

Population
Although never abundant, the species was common in the 1950s in the market in Hokaido, Japan, but has been continually declining over the past century (Shmigirilov et al. 2007)

Current population estimates range from ten to thirty adults entering the Tumnin River for spawning annually. In 2005 only three specimens were caught and two specimens in 2008 - these were used for the establishment of aquaculture stocks.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Illegal poaching (during spawning migration) is greatly affecting the viability of the species in the Tunmin river and this population could vanish within the next 10-15 years (Shmigirilov et al. 2007).

Bycatch is a threat to the species as there is a lot of trawling off the coast. Pollution and the potential construction of dams is also a threat to the species.
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Critically Endangered (CR) (A2cde)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
More research is needed, particularly on the migration, feeding ecology, the productivity of natural reproduction and life history (Shmigirilov et al. 2007). Population monitoring is also required.

Considering the low abundance of this species, research should focus on investigating potential environmental limiting factors (especially estuarine conditions), determining survival rates of the age stages and fecundity (Shmigirilov et al. 2007).

Conservation aquaculture techniques have been developed since 1995.

Public education, applied management research, and experimental research are necessary to develop better plans for protecting these species from extinction.

International trade is restricted (CITES II, since 1998; CMS Appendix II). Commercially cultured in Japan, and there is a large stock in Sakhalin which has originated from Tumnin spawners.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; price category: unknown; price reliability:
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Wikipedia

Sakhalin sturgeon

The Sakhalin sturgeon (Acipenser mikadoi) is a species of fish in the Acipenseridae family. It is found in Japan and Russia.

Environment[edit source | edit]

The Sakhalin sturgeon is known to be found in either a marine or freshwater environment within demersal depth range. This species is found in brackish waters. They are also native to a tropical climate.[1]

Size[edit source | edit]

The Sakhalin sturgeon has reached the maximum recorded length of about 150 centimeters or about 59 inches as an unsexed male. [1]

Biology[edit source | edit]

The Sakhalin sturgeon is considered to be a species that migrates up the river from the sea in order to spawn. During the months of April to May, the Sakhalin sturgeon feeds in the freshwater and then returns to the ocean during the summer. [1][2]

Identification[edit source | edit]

The Sakhalin sturgeon is recorded to be the colors of olive-green and dark green. Its sides have a yellowish white color and it includes an olive green stripe. The bottom lip of this species is split into two. [3]

Distribution[edit source | edit]

The Sakhalin sturgeon is commonly found in the areas of Northwest Pacific, Bering Sea, Tumnin or Datta river, northern Japan, and Korea.[1] This species currently spawns persistently in the Tumnin River.[4]

Threats[edit source | edit]

The threats that are affecting the population of the Sakhalin sturgeon include illegal poaching, trawling, accidental bycatch, pollution, and construction of dams.[4]

Common names[edit source | edit]

The common names of the Sakhalin sturgeon in various languages include the following:

  • Acipenser mikadoi : Italian (Italiano)
  • Chôzame : Japanese (日本語)
  • Jeseter severní : Czech (česky)
  • Mikadosampi : Finnish (suomen kieli)
  • Sakhalin sturgeon : English
  • сахалинский осетр : Russian (русский язык)
  • 米氏鱘 : Mandarin Chinese
  • 米氏鲟 : Mandarin Chinese[5]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Acipenser mikadoi Hilgendorf, 1892 Sakhalin sturgeon". Fish Base. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Acipenser mikadoi — Overview Sakhalin Sturgeon". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "Sakhalin Sturgeon". Pond Life. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Acipenser mikadoi". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  5. ^ "Sakhalin sturgeon". The Website of Everything. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 

Source[edit source | edit]

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