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BiologyAdults inhabit forest streams to desert bores under equally variable regimes of salinity (pure fresh to seawater), pH (4.0 to 8.6) and temperature (5° to 44° C). Occur in billabongs, lakes and dams. May be encountered in any temporary water in the interior after rains, including wheel ruts of vehicle tracks (Ref. 44894). Omnivorous, feed on insects, crustaceans, mollusks and plants. A hardy species that may be capable of surviving droughts by aestivating in wet mud or under moist little on the bottom of ephemeral waterholes. Spawning occurs on summer nights (November onwards) when water temperatures reach 20°-26°C. Fish moves upstream in rivers or to the shallows in lakes and ponds to spawn on soft substrates. The eggs hatch in 2 days and larval development is complete in about 24 days (Ref. 44894). Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205). Neither anterolateral glandular grooves nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).