Overview

Comprehensive Description

Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: CIRR-288 ; recordedBy: Salvador Zarco Perello ; individualCount: 50 ; Location: continent: America; country: Mexico ; stateProvince: Yucatan; locality: Madagascar Reef ; verbatimDepth: 15 m; verbatimLatitude: 781731.820967; verbatimLongitude: 2373387.22376; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM 15N; verbatimSRS: WGS84; decimalLatitude: 21.440887 ; decimalLongitude: -90.281873 ; Event: samplingProtocol: Photosampling ; eventDate: 11/9/2007 ; Record Level: collectionID: YUC-PEC_239-01-64; institutionCode: UMDI-SISAL ; collectionCode: CIRR

Distribution

Western Atlantic. Florida to Brazil. Including Bermuda, Bahamas and throughout the Caribbean Islands.

  • Zarco Perello, Salvador, Moreno Mendoza, Rigoberto, Simoes, Nuno (2014): Checklist of Fishes from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, Mexico. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1100: 1100-1100, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1100
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Biology

Inhabits reefs and rocky bottoms. Feeds at night on mollusks, echinoderms, annelids, and crustaceans (Ref. 3798). Young pick parasites from the bodies of larger fishes (Ref. 5521). Young are popular aquarium fish (Ref. 7251). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420).
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Distribution

Western Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: Bermuda (introduced) and Florida, USA to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 9626).
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 18; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
  • Uyeno, T., K. Matsuura and E. Fujii (eds.) 1983 Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo, Japan. 519 p. (Ref. 13608)
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Size

Maximum size: 380 mm TL
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Max. size

40.6 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 930 g (Ref. 40637)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Body striped yellow and silvery blue; fins yellow, 2 black bars: one from nape through eye to mouth, another from origin of dorsal fin to base of pectoral fin. Only grunt fish in the Caribbean with two vertical black bars and yellow stripes. (Ref. 26938).
  • Uyeno, T., K. Matsuura and E. Fujii (eds.) 1983 Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo, Japan. 519 p. (Ref. 13608)
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth: 2 - 20m.
From 2 to 20 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 538 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 317 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 40
  Temperature range (°C): 24.233 - 28.067
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.115 - 3.505
  Salinity (PPS): 35.610 - 37.169
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.731
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.239
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 5.080

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 40

Temperature range (°C): 24.233 - 28.067

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.115 - 3.505

Salinity (PPS): 35.610 - 37.169

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.731

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.239

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 5.080
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits reefs and rocky bottoms. Feeds at night on mollusks, echinoderms, annelids, and crustaceans (Ref. 3798). Cleaned by Elacatinus figaro observed off the coast of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 40102). Mobile invertebrates feeder (Ref. 57616).
  • Randall, J.E. 1967 Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Stud. Trop. Oceanogr. Miami 5:665-847.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anisotremus virginicus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGGGCTGGGATAGTAGGAACAGCCCTG---AGCCTGCTTATTCGAGCAGAGCTCAGTCAGCCGGGCGCCCTCCTCGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACCGCACATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTCTAATCGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTTGTCCCCTTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCCGATATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAATATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCACCTTCCTTCCTTCTCCTCCTTGCCTCCTCAGGCGTAGAAGCTGGGGCCGGCACCGGATGAACAGTTTACCCTCCCTTAGCCGGAAATCTAGCGCATGCCGGGGCATCCGTTGACCTA---ACAATTTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTTGGAGCAATTAACTTCATCACAACAATTATCAATATGAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCCCAGTATCAAACCCCCCTATTTGTGTGGTCCGTTCTGGTTACGGCCGTTCTTCTTCTGCTTTCCCTTCCAGTCCTTGCGGCT---GGTATTACAATGCTTCTCACAGACCGAAATCTGAATACCACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCTGGAGGAGGGGACCCCATCCTCTACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anisotremus virginicus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 19
Specimens with Barcodes: 34
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
  • Walford, L. and R. Wicklund 1973 Contribution to a world-wide inventory of exotic marine and anadromous organisms. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 121. 49 p. (Ref. 6328)
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Wikipedia

Anisotremus virginicus

Anisotremus virginicus, the porkfish, is a species of grunt native to the western Atlantic Ocean from Florida to Brazil and the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This nocturnal species inhabits areas of reef or with rocky substrates at depths of from 2 to 20 metres (6.6 to 65.6 ft). It can reach a length of 40.6 centimetres (16.0 in) TL though most do not exceed 25 centimetres (9.8 in). It is of minor importance as a commercial food fish and is also popular as a game fish though it is reported to sometimes contain the ciguatera toxin. It is also a popular fish in public aquariums.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Anisotremus virginicus" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
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