Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits reefs and rocky bottoms. Feeds at night on mollusks, echinoderms, annelids, and crustaceans (Ref. 3798). Young pick parasites from the bodies of larger fishes (Ref. 5521). Young are popular aquarium fish (Ref. 7251). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420).
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Distribution

Western Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: Bermuda (introduced) and Florida, USA to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 9626).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 18; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
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Size

Maximum size: 380 mm TL
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Max. size

40.6 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 930 g (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Body striped yellow and silvery blue; fins yellow, 2 black bars: one from nape through eye to mouth, another from origin of dorsal fin to base of pectoral fin. Only grunt fish in the Caribbean with two vertical black bars and yellow stripes. (Ref. 26938).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth: 2 - 20m.
From 2 to 20 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 538 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 317 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 40
  Temperature range (°C): 24.233 - 28.067
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.115 - 3.505
  Salinity (PPS): 35.610 - 37.169
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.731
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.239
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 5.080

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 40

Temperature range (°C): 24.233 - 28.067

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.115 - 3.505

Salinity (PPS): 35.610 - 37.169

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.731

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.239

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 5.080
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits reefs and rocky bottoms. Feeds at night on mollusks, echinoderms, annelids, and crustaceans (Ref. 3798). Cleaned by Elacatinus figaro observed off the coast of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 40102). Mobile invertebrates feeder (Ref. 57616).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anisotremus virginicus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 19
Specimens with Barcodes: 34
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Anisotremus virginicus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGGGCTGGGATAGTAGGAACAGCCCTG---AGCCTGCTTATTCGAGCAGAGCTCAGTCAGCCGGGCGCCCTCCTCGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACCGCACATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTCTAATCGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTTGTCCCCTTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCCGATATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAATATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCACCTTCCTTCCTTCTCCTCCTTGCCTCCTCAGGCGTAGAAGCTGGGGCCGGCACCGGATGAACAGTTTACCCTCCCTTAGCCGGAAATCTAGCGCATGCCGGGGCATCCGTTGACCTA---ACAATTTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTTGGAGCAATTAACTTCATCACAACAATTATCAATATGAAACCTCCTGCCATCTCCCAGTATCAAACCCCCCTATTTGTGTGGTCCGTTCTGGTTACGGCCGTTCTTCTTCTGCTTTCCCTTCCAGTCCTTGCGGCT---GGTATTACAATGCTTCTCACAGACCGAAATCTGAATACCACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCTGGAGGAGGGGACCCCATCCTCTACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Wikipedia

Anisotremus virginicus

Anisotremus virginicus, the Porkfish, is a species of grunt native to the western Atlantic Ocean from Florida to Brazil and the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This nocturnal species inhabits areas of reef or with rocky substrates at depths of from 2 to 20 metres (6.6 to 66 ft). It can reach a length of 40.6 centimetres (16.0 in) TL though most do not exceed 25 centimetres (9.8 in). It is of minor importance as a commercial food fish and is also popular as a game fish though it is reported to sometimes contain the ciguatera toxin. It is also a popular fish in public aquariums.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Anisotremus virginicus" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
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