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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in coral, algal and rocky reefs and on algal beds (Ref. 40827).
  • Moura, R.L., J.L. de Figueiredo and I. Sazima 2001 A new parrotfish (Scaridae) from Brazil, and revalidation of Sparisoma amplum (Ranzani, 1842), Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz, 1831), Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner, 1878) and Scarus trispinosus Valenciennes, 1840. Bull. Mar. Sci. 68(3):505-524. (Ref. 40827)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=40827&speccode=59490 External link.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to Brazil and is found from Manoel Luiz Reefs on the northern Brazilian coast, to Santa Catarina on the southeastern Brazilian coast. It is absent from the oceanic islands.
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Brazil.
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Southwest Atlantic: endemic to Brazil.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

35.5 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40827))
  • Moura, R.L., J.L. de Figueiredo and I. Sazima 2001 A new parrotfish (Scaridae) from Brazil, and revalidation of Sparisoma amplum (Ranzani, 1842), Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz, 1831), Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner, 1878) and Scarus trispinosus Valenciennes, 1840. Bull. Mar. Sci. 68(3):505-524. (Ref. 40827)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=40827&speccode=59490 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

This species lacks a large pale area on the head (extending from the throat to snout) that is present in S. coelestinus. S. trispinosus has roughly homogenously-colored scales on flanks unlike in S. coelestinus where flank scales have distinct dark margins. S. trispinosus also lack the irregular bright-blue blotches on nape and around the eye. Juveniles are similarly colored as the adults, but bear a yellowish area on nape, similar to subadults of S. coelestinus (Ref. 40827).
  • Moura, R.L., J.L. de Figueiredo and I. Sazima 2001 A new parrotfish (Scaridae) from Brazil, and revalidation of Sparisoma amplum (Ranzani, 1842), Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz, 1831), Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner, 1878) and Scarus trispinosus Valenciennes, 1840. Bull. Mar. Sci. 68(3):505-524. (Ref. 40827)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=40827&speccode=59490 External link.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is reef-associated and occurs in seagrass, coral reef, algal and rocky reefs and on algal beds at depths of one to 45 m. It exhibits a functional role in substrate use because it is an important excavator that often feeds on live coral.

There is no direct information on its life history to estimate generation length. However, based on sister species S. guacamaia, a generation of 7 to 10 years can be inferred.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 40827)
  • Moura, R.L., J.L. de Figueiredo and I. Sazima 2001 A new parrotfish (Scaridae) from Brazil, and revalidation of Sparisoma amplum (Ranzani, 1842), Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz, 1831), Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner, 1878) and Scarus trispinosus Valenciennes, 1840. Bull. Mar. Sci. 68(3):505-524. (Ref. 40827)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=40827&speccode=59490 External link.
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Depth range based on 113 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 98 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2.25 - 27.5
  Temperature range (°C): 26.345 - 26.401
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.435 - 0.438
  Salinity (PPS): 37.020 - 37.096
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.691 - 4.706
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.137
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.517 - 2.580

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2.25 - 27.5

Temperature range (°C): 26.345 - 26.401

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.435 - 0.438

Salinity (PPS): 37.020 - 37.096

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.691 - 4.706

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.137

Silicate (umol/l): 2.517 - 2.580
 
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2d

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Padovani-Ferreira, B., Floeter, S., Rocha, L.A., Ferreira, C.E., Francini-Filho, R., Moura, R., Gaspar, A.L. & Feitosa, C.

Reviewer/s
McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is endemic to Brazil, and is common in some parts of its range especially in protected areas. However, the vast majority of this species population and habitat type occur outside of protected areas with no-take zones. Outside of no-take zones, this species is heavily fished with a variety of gears. Based on measured declines in several locations, this species global population is estimated to have declined by at least 50% over the past 20 to 30 years (three generation lengths). If conservation measures are not implemented, this decline is expected to continue. It is listed as Endangered under Criterion A2d.

History
  • 2010
    Endangered
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Population

Population
In 1996–1998, this species was the second most abundant species in Manoel Luis State Marine Park; it was present in 69% of underwater visual census (UVC) samples and had a mean length of 30 cm (Rocha and Rosa 2001). On the Abrolhos Bank, the largest coral reef area in the south Atlantic, this species represents 28% of total fish biomass, and has shown 50% decline in the past five years (Francini-Filho 2005, Francini-Filho and Moura 2008).

In the southeastern part of its range (Arraial do Cabo), the biomass has declined by 60–70% over the last 15 years based on UVC and fishermen interviews (B. Ferreira pers comm. 2008). Scarus trispinosus densities obtained with UVC (n=418 summer months at six areas) in shallow rocky reefs of less than 10 m depth in southeastern Brazil had a mean value of 0.00018/m² (A. Bertoncini pers comm. 2008). In the northeast of Brazil in Baixo-sul baiano, an UVC (n=713 at five reef areas) in shallow reefs from 10 to 25 m depth revealed mean density values of 0.0018/m² (A. Bertoncini and C. Sampaio pers comm. 2008).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened by spearfishing throughout its range and also by net and trap fishing. Based on measured declines in at least two signicant parts of its range (Abrolhos Bank and the Arraial do Cabo), along with observations that large individuals have become very rare, it is estimated that at least 50% of the global population has declined over the past 20 to 30 years.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
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Endangered (EN) (A2d)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures for this species. Significant differences can be seen in this species abundance inside and outside protected no fishing areas (Ferreira and Maida 2006). For example, in a study of this species in a no-take zone, it was abundant and recovered within 3-4 years from previous levels when fishing was allowed (Francini-Filho and Moura 2008).

A few populations are currently protected by reserves by no-take reserves along the coast, including some reefs in Abrolhos, in Costa dos Corais, and others where there is effective enforcement. However, the number of protected areas within its range does not include a large porportion of this species population or habitat.
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