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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

The only catfish found in coral reefs. Also found in estuaries, tide pools and open coasts. Juveniles form dense ball-shaped schools of about 100 fish; adults are solitary or occur in smaller groups of around 20 and are known to hide under ledges during the day (Ref. 1602, 5503, 12693, 37816, 48635). Adults search and stir the sand incessantly for crustaceans, mollusks, worms, and sometimes fish (Ref. 5213). Oviparous, with demersal eggs and planktonic larvae (Ref. 205). The highly venomous serrate spine of the first dorsal and each of the pectoral fins are dangerous, and even fatal in rare cases (Ref. 1602).
  • Taylor, W.R. and J.R. Gomon 1986 Plotosidae. p. 160-162. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISBN, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3879)
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, southern Korea, and the Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and Lord Howe Island. Palau and Yap in Micronesia (Ref. 1602). Sometimes enters freshwaters of East Africa (Lake Malawi) and Madagascar (Ref. 3879).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Algoa Bay (South Africa), Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Korea, southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia at 32°S, Lord Howe Island and New C
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 69 - 115; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 58 - 82
  • Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
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Size

Maximum size: 320 mm ---
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Max. size

32.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 240)
  • Thresher, R.E. 1984 Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., Neptune City, New Jersey. 399 p. (Ref. 240)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Diagnostic Description

Dorsal and anal fins continuous with caudal fin. Four pairs of mouth barbels. A single highly venomous serrate spine at the beginning of the first dorsal and each of the pectoral fins (Ref. 1602).Description: Characterized by black to brown color on upper side; white venrally; pair of narrow white stripes extending from head to caudal fin; well separated dorsal fins; origin of second dorsal fin posterior to level of pelvic fin origin; depth of body 5.8-8.0 in SL; anterior nostril tubular, dorsal to upper lip; gill membranes narrowly attached across isthmus (Ref. 90102).
  • Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
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Description

The only catfish found in coral reefs. Juveniles form dense ball-shaped schools of about 100 fish and are found over reefs and seagrass beds; adults are solitary or occur in smaller groups of around 20 and are known to hide under ledges during the day (Ref. 5503 and 1602). Searches and stirs the sand incessantly for crustaceans, molluscs, worms and sometimes fish (Ref. 5213). The highly venemous serrate spine of the first dorsal and each of the pectoral fins are dangerous, and even fatal in rare cases (Ref. 1602).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 37816)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
  • Myers, R.F. 1999 Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia, 3rd revised and expanded edition. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 330 p. (Ref. 37816)
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Depth range based on 136 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 67 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 150
  Temperature range (°C): 21.472 - 29.205
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.002 - 8.154
  Salinity (PPS): 32.183 - 39.538
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.404 - 5.067
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.909
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.736 - 15.721

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 150

Temperature range (°C): 21.472 - 29.205

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.002 - 8.154

Salinity (PPS): 32.183 - 39.538

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.404 - 5.067

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.909

Silicate (umol/l): 0.736 - 15.721
 
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Depth: 1 - 35m.
From 1 to 35 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Striped eel-catfish.  (Thunberg, 1787)  Attains 32 cm. Throughout Indo-West pacific. Large shoals can be found in shallow water and tide pools.
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Migration

Amphidromous. Refers to fishes that regularly migrate between freshwater and the sea (in both directions), but not for the purpose of breeding, as in anadromous and catadromous species. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.Characteristic elements in amphidromy are: reproduction in fresh water, passage to sea by newly hatched larvae, a period of feeding and growing at sea usually a few months long, return to fresh water of well-grown juveniles, a further period of feeding and growing in fresh water, followed by reproduction there (Ref. 82692).
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Widespread in coastal waters of the Indo-Pacific Region (Ref. 9137). Present in seagrass beds at juvenile stage (Ref. 41878). The only catfish found in coral reefs (Ref. 58534). Also found in estuaries, tide pools and open coasts. The aggregation takes on the appearance of a much larger creature or even inanimate objects, reducing the chances of predation (Ref. 54301). An omnivore that eats benthic animals, algae, and detritus (Ref. 9137). Adults search and stir the sand incessantly for crustaceans, mollusks, worms, and sometimes fish (Ref. 5213). The highly venomous serrate spine of the first dorsal and each of the pectoral fins are dangerous, and even fatal in rare cases (Ref. 1602).
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Diseases and Parasites

Septemcapsula Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and S. Lumanlan-Mayo 1997 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 369, 102 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 26129)
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Gyrodactylus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and S. Lumanlan-Mayo 1997 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 369, 102 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 26129)
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Coccomyxa Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and S. Lumanlan-Mayo 1997 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 369, 102 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 26129)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

The male in the spawning pair constructs the nest under rocks and other large pieces of debris (Ref. 240). After spawning, the female departs while the male guards the eggs.
  • Thresher, R.E. 1984 Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., Neptune City, New Jersey. 399 p. (Ref. 240)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Plotosus lineatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 21 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTGTACTTAGTATTCGGTGCTTGAGCAGGAATAGTGGGCACAGCCCTA---AGCCTACTAATTCGAGCAGAACTAGCTCAGCCAGGCTCGTTCCTAGGCGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATGTTATCGTCACTGCGCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAGTTATAATCGGGGGATTTGGAAACTGGTTAGTCCCCCTAATA---ATTGGGGCACCAGATATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCCCCCTCATTTTTACTCTTACTGGCCTCCTCAGGAGTTGAGGCTGGAGCCGGAACAGGGTGAACTGTTTACCCCCCTCTCGCCGGTAATATCGCACACGCAGGTGCTTCTGTCGATTTA---ACTATCTTCTCCTTACACCTCGCCGGAGTATCATCTATTCTAGGCGCTATTAACTTCATCACAACTATCATCAATATAAAACCCCCAGCCATCTCACAATACCAGCTACCCCTGTTCGTTTGATCTGTATTAATCACAGCCGTCCTCCTACTTTTATCCCTGCCGGTATTAGCCGCT---GGCATTACAATATTATTAACAGACCGAAACTTAAATACAACATTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGCGGAGGCGACCCCATCCTCTACCAACATCTT------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Plotosus lineatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 29
Specimens with Barcodes: 55
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
  • Baensch, H.A. 1992 Neue Meerwasser-Praxis. Tetra Verlag, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 7309)
  • Gomon, J.R. 1984 Plotosidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3478)
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Wikipedia

Plotosus lineatus

Plotosus lineatus, common name Striped eel catfish, is a species of eeltail catfishes belonging to the family Plotosidae.

Description[edit]

Plotosus lineatus can reach a maximum length of 32 cm (13 in).[1] The body is brown with cream-colored or white longitudinal bands.

The most striking feature of this species is in the fins, in fact the second dorsal, caudal and anal are fused together as in eels. In the rest of the body is quite similar to a freshwater catfish: the mouth is surrounded by four pairs of barbels, four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw. The first dorsal and each of the pectoral fins have a highly venomous spine. They may even be fatal.[1]

Juveniles of Plotosus lineatus form dense ball-shaped schools of about 100 fish, while adults are solitary or occur in smaller groups of around 20 and are known to hide under ledges during the day.[1] Adult P. lineatus search and stir the sand incessantly for crustaceans, mollusks, worms, and sometimes fish.[1]

Striped eel catfish is an oviparous fish; this species has demersal eggs and planktonic larvae. This species has evolved long ampullary canals in its electrosensory organs (originally termed "ampullae of Lorenzini").

Distribution and habitat[edit]

P. lineatus occurs in the eastern Mediterranean, in the Indian Ocean, in the western Pacific Ocean and sometimes enters freshwaters in East Africa and Madagascar.[1] P. lineatus is found in coral reefs; it is also found in estuaries, tide pools and open coasts.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Plotosus lineatus" in FishBase. November 2014 version.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, núm. 1, vol. 1-3. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco (California). ISBN 0-940228-47-5.
  • Fenner, Robert M.: The Conscientious Marine Aquarist. Neptune City, New Jersey: T.F.H. Publications, 2001.
  • Helfman, G., B. Collette y D. Facey: The diversity of fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts, 1997.
  • Moyle, P. y J. Cech.: Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, 4a. ed., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Año 2000.
  • Nelson, J.: Fishes of the World, 3a. ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1994.
  • Wheeler, A.: The World Encyclopedia of Fishes, 2a. ed., London: Macdonald. 1985.
  • Lieske, E. i R. Myers 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p.
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