Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Intertidal, actively shuttling back and forth between rock pools and air (Ref. 31184). They breathe air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Can stay out of the water for up to 22-60 hours if kept moist (Ref. 51276). Found in estuaries, swamps, marshy areas and tidal mud flats. Moves around briskly on land preying on small animals. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
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Distribution

Northwest Pacific: Vietnam (Ref. 44416), northward to Korea and southern Japan (Ref. 559).
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Western North Pacific: China to Japan.
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Found in the following locations: Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa, and Tanzania.

  • "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Periophthalmus kalolo Lesson, 1831." WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

10.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5258))
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Diagnostic Description

“Amphibious species spending most of the time out of the water; able to meet its oxygen requirements as long as it stays wet. Typically resting on mud, rocks, or mangrove roots with their tails dipped in the water. Feeds on worms, crustaceans, and insects...Differs from P. argentilineatus by lacking thin silvery bars ventrally on the sides and having pelvic fins connected at the base by a low membrane (Ref. 37816).”

  • "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Periophthalmus kalolo Lesson, 1831." WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 46888); freshwater; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 9 - 9
  Temperature range (°C): 26.960 - 26.960
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.498 - 0.498
  Salinity (PPS): 34.192 - 34.192
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.578 - 4.578
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.284 - 0.284
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.892 - 4.892
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Amphidromous. Refers to fishes that regularly migrate between freshwater and the sea (in both directions), but not for the purpose of breeding, as in anadromous and catadromous species. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.Characteristic elements in amphidromy are: reproduction in fresh water, passage to sea by newly hatched larvae, a period of feeding and growing at sea usually a few months long, return to fresh water of well-grown juveniles, a further period of feeding and growing in fresh water, followed by reproduction there (Ref. 82692).
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Trophic Strategy

Intertidal, actively shuttling back and forth between rockpools and air (Ref. 31184). Breathes air when out of water (Ref. 31184). Found in estuaries, swamps, marshy areas and tidal mud flats. Moves around briskly on land preying on small animals.
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Associations

Mudskippers associate with their own species. Any other creature they associate with is not for a social purpose but for survival, such as the algae and arthropods they consume.

  • "Mudskipper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Diseases and Parasites

Diseases aren’t common in mudskippers; nonetheless they are still prone to viral disorders, bacterial infections like fin rot, fungal infections, and mold infections.

  • "Fish diseases and parasites - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Very active during the day, spending most of their time squabbling with their neighbors over territory. They feed on algae that the tides leave behind, so when the tide’s out, they’re emerge from their burrows to feed, returning to the burrow when the tide comes back in.

  • "mudskippers.org introduction to mudskippers, mudskipper behavior, how to raise mudskippers, where to buy mudskippers." mudskippers.org introduction to mudskippers, mudskipper behavior, how to raise mudskippers, where to buy mudskippers. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Cyclicity

Born in freshwater, swim to salt water as newly-hatched larvae where they feed and grow for a few months and then return to fresh water as juvenile adults. They remain in the freshwater for the remainder of their lives.

  • "Goby - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Life Cycle

Mudskippers breed and are born in freshwater. Then, as newly-hatched larvae, they travel to saltwater to feed and grow for two months or so. After that they return to freshwater as juvenile adults, and they remain in the fresh water for the rest of their lives.

  • "Goby - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Reproduction

To reproduce, mudskippers and other gobies attach their eggs to vegetation, or coral or a rock, and a male guards them until the eggs hatch after a few days. After the larvae are born, they go to saltwater to continue growth. Life expectancy of gobies vary from one year to ten years, those living in temperate environments.

  • "Mudskipper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Bony fishes divided into two groups, one of which (actinopterigians) contained mudskippers. The latter evolved special respiratory systems that allowed them to breathe out of water. Mudskippers were then able to use their fins like a pair of legs to pull them out of their underwater habitats. It’s believed that this became necessary because of inhospitable water conditions (like, moving from one pool to another).

  • "Themudskipper - Introduction." The mudskipper - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

The physiology of mudskippers is like that of any fish, but what’s special about them is their ability to breathe above water. The reality is that they’re not air-breathing, but obtaining oxygen from packets of water in their mouths.

  • "Mudskipper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2011. .
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Periophthalmus modestus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Periophthalmus modestus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Shuttles hoppfish

Periophthalmus modestus, the Shuttles hoppfish, is a species of mudskippers native to fresh, marine and brackish waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean from Vietnam to Korea and Japan. This species occurs in muddy estuaries, tidal flats and swamps and marshes and is capable of remaining out of the water for up to 60 hours so long as it is kept moist. This species can reach a length of 10 centimetres (3.9 in) TL. This species can also be found in the aquarium trade and is also used in traditional Chinese medicine.[1]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Periophthalmus modestus" in FishBase. June 2013 version.
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